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徐金会,王硕,薛慧良,徐来祥.2014.温度对黑线仓鼠能量代谢及开场行为的影响.动物学杂志,49(2):154-161.
温度对黑线仓鼠能量代谢及开场行为的影响
Influence of Temperature on the Energy Metabolism and Open Field Behavior of Cricetulus barabensis
投稿时间:2013-08-23  修订日期:2014-03-04
DOI:
中文关键词:  黑线仓鼠  温度  日食量  静止代谢率  开场行为
英文关键词:Striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis)  Temperature  Daily intake  Resting metabolism rate  Open field behavior
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31270417)和曲阜师范大学“十二五”计划省级重点建设项目
作者单位E-mail
徐金会 曲阜师范大学生命科学学院 曲阜273165 xujinhui@mail.qfnu.edu.cn 
王硕 曲阜师范大学生命科学学院 曲阜273165  
薛慧良 曲阜师范大学生命科学学院 曲阜273165  
徐来祥 曲阜师范大学生命科学学院 曲阜273165 xulx@mail.qfnu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      形态、生理及行为的季节性变化是动物生存和繁殖的适应性策略。温度可能是影响啮齿动物季节性繁殖和种群波动的重要气候因子。为了验证环境温度能诱导鼠类体重、能量代谢及行为产生适应性变化的假设, 并探究其中的相互关系和意义, 通过不同温度处理模拟四季温度, 以野生雄性黑线仓鼠(Cricetulus barabensis)为研究对象, 检测其体重、日食量、静止代谢率(RMR)及开场行为的变化。结果显示: 随着处理温度的下降, 黑线仓鼠的体重、日食量及静止代谢率均出现显著性或极显著性地增加趋势(P<0.05或P<0.01); 以体重为协变量的协方差分析表明, 日食量和静止代谢率的增加不完全是由体重增加而造成的; 高温处理降低了黑线仓鼠的爬行格数(P<0.01), 低温处理降低了黑线仓鼠的爬行格数和后肢站立次数(P<0.01或P<0.05), 并产生明显的颤抖现象。以上研究结果支持环境温度能诱导鼠类体重、能量代谢及行为产生适应性变化的假设。低温同时增加黑线仓鼠能量的摄入水平和维持基本生长的能量支出水平, 同时降低动物在陌生环境中的自发活动与探索行为。高温则降低黑线仓鼠能量的摄入和支出水平, 同时减少自发活动与探索行为。体重、能量代谢和行为学特征的变化有利于仓鼠度过寒冷的冬季和干热的夏季, 同时也与仓鼠的季节性繁殖现象相一致, 因此这些特征可能是黑线仓鼠对其寒冷的冬季及干热的夏季生存环境的适应。
英文摘要:
      Seasonal changes in physiology and behavior are an adaptive strategy for survival and reproduction in small rodents experiencing marked seasonal fluctuation in environmental temperatures, which is also thought to be an important factor driving rodents- seasonal breeding and population fluctuation. The present study is to test the hypothesis whether ambient temperature is a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy metabolism and behaviors in rodents. Here, we measured body mass, daily intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and open field behavior under different ambient temperature (5.3±2.0℃, 14.7±2.0℃ and 28.4±2.0℃) in wild male striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). Differences in body mass and open field index (total transition, rearing, duration in central area, fecal particles) among low, medium and high temperature groups were examined by one-way ANOVA, followed by least significant difference (LSD) post hoc tests. Comparisons of body mass before and after treatment were analyzed using paired-samples t-test. Effects of temperature on daily intake and RMR were examined using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with body mass as a covariate. The results showed that: ① Low temperature and medium temperature significantly increased body mass from 27.059±0.217g to 28.056±0.184g (t11=-6.291, P<0.05) and 26.292±0.339g to 27.113±0.341g (t11=-8.027, P<0.05), respectively, while high temperature had no significant effect (t11=1.796, P>0.05). ② Temperature treatment had a significant effect on daily intake and RMR. Daily intake in low, medium and high temperature group was 3.122±0.094g, 2.447±0.087g and 1.948±0.090g, respectively, and difference between groups was significant (F2,32=36.576, P<0.001). RMR was 4.104±0.086ml/(g·h), 3.638±0.079mlO2/(g·h) and 3006±0.082mlO2/(g·h), respectively. RMR was significantly increased in low temperature group (F2,32=39233, P<0.001). ③ Different temperature caused a different effect on the open field behavior of striped hamsters. Total transition of low, medium and high temperature group was 158±6, 187±5 and 103±3 respectively, total transition in medium group was significant increased compared to high and low temperature group. Rearing was 78±4, 91±5 and 97±5 respectively, rearing in low temperature group was also extremely significant decreased compared to medium and high group (F2,32=4.233, P<0.05). While the difference of duration in central area and fecal between the groups were not significant. Moreover, striped hamsters in low temperature had obvious shaking behavior. Together, these data support our hypothesis that ambient temperature is a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy metabolism and behavior in hamsters. Low temperature increased energy intake and energy expenditure which sustains the basic growth in striped hamsters. Meanwhile, spontaneous activity and exploring behavior in unfamiliar environment reduce in low temperature, thus reduce energy consumption and heat loss. On the contrary, the striped hamsters reduce the energy intake and expenditure in high temperature, which decrease the cost of thermoregulation. The spontaneous activity and exploring behavior also reduce, which may reduce the heat generated by the muscle contraction. These energy metabolism and behavior properties benefit to the survival of hamsters in cold winters and hot, dry summer, also it is consistent with the seasonal breeding of hamsters. So, these properties in striped hamsters may closely relate to their living habits, characterized by a cold winter and hot, dry summer.
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