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孙婷,汪安泰.2014.澳洲异尾涡虫(无肠目,盘旋科)新纪录及描述.动物学杂志,49(3):415-422.
澳洲异尾涡虫(无肠目,盘旋科)新纪录及描述
A New Record and Description of Heterochaerus australis ( Acoela, Convolutidae)
投稿时间:2013-09-10  修订日期:2014-05-10
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201403014
中文关键词:  涡虫  无肠目  澳洲异尾涡虫  形态学  分类学  中国
英文关键词:Turbellarian  Acoela  Heterochaerus australis  Morphology  Taxonomy  China
基金项目:广东省大学生创新项目(No. 1059013018),深圳湾福田红树林湿地生态系统可持续发展研究项目(No. T201203),深圳大学生命科学学院生物科学专业2011级野外实习专项资助;
作者单位E-mail
孙婷 深圳大学生命科学学院 442801779@qq.com 
汪安泰 深圳大学生命科学学院 wang118@szu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      本文对分布于广东省深圳市深圳湾体育中心海边(22°30′58″N, 113°56′1″E)的一种褐绿色涡虫的形态、发育、行为等做了详细观测,并对其进行了分类学与动物地理方面的讨论。结果表明:涡虫表皮内具共生的虫黄藻(Zooxanthella microadriatica),另具菌丝状分布的棕色颗粒。头部钝圆,具1对米粒状棕色眼点和1个平衡囊。尾后两侧具2条并列的尾垂,其形状和大小与涡虫尾部的舒展状态相关。雌雄同体,生殖孔2个,位于口后,雌孔在前,雄孔在后。卵巢、精巢成双,分别位于腹侧与背侧。受精囊呈哑铃型,囊内具2 ~12根囊管。阴道呈倒“T”形,其表皮由柱状细胞构成。精巢内精子集聚成束,向体后两侧延伸成假储精囊,汇入储精囊。储精囊环抱阴茎球。涡虫利用纤毛的摆动在水底滑动,或利用两侧身体的摆动呈蝶状游泳。喜捕食微型涡虫与轮虫,人工饲养可摄食水蚤或水溞。经比较,鉴定为无肠目盘旋科(Convolutidae)异尾属(Heterochaerus)澳洲异尾涡虫(H. australis Haswell, 1905),属中国涡虫1新纪录目1新纪录种。
英文摘要:
      In this paper, the morphology, development and behaviour of a brown-green turbellarian, collected from the sea near Shenzhen Bay Sports Center in Shenzhen City (22°30′58″N, 113°56′1″E) Guangdong Province, was carefully observed. Its taxonomy and geographical distribution was also discussed. The results indicated that, symbiotic Zooxanthella microadriatica and hyphal brown granules were within the epiderm. Its head was blunt round shape, with a pair of granular brown ocellus and a statocyst. Two caudal lappets laid coordinately on both sides of the tail. The shape and size of the caudal lappets were related to the stretch status of the tail. It was hermaphrodite, with two genital openings behind the mouth, and the female genital opening was anterior to the male one. The paired oocyte laid in ventral body and paired testes laid in dorsal body. Seminal bursa was dumbbell shape, within 2-12 bursal nozzles. The vagina was inverted T-shaped, and its epiderm consisted of prismatic cells. Sperm in testis gathered into bundle, extended towards the rear of the body to false seminal vesicle, and gathered into seminal vesicle. The penis was surrounded by seminal vesicle. It moved under the water with the swing of cilia, or wiggled both sides of the body appearing papilionaceous swimming. It preferred to prey on miniature turbellarians and rotifer. When artificial feeding, it could ingest Cladoceran. Through contrastive study, this turbellarian was identified as Heterochaerus australis Haswell, 1905 of the genus Heterochaerus (Acoela, Convolutidae), and it is a newly recorded order and species of turbellarian in China.
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