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杨敬元,刘学聪,廖明尧.2014.神农架一个川金丝猴群的食物分布.动物学杂志,49(4):465-475.
神农架一个川金丝猴群的食物分布
Food Distribution for a Group of Rhinopithecus roxellana in Shennongjia, China
投稿时间:2013-11-15  修订日期:2014-07-05
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201404001
中文关键词:  川金丝猴  神农架  食物分布  海拔
英文关键词:Rhinopithecus roxellana  Shennongjia  Food distribution  Altitude
基金项目:基金项目 国家科技支撑计划项目(No. 2013BAD03B03), L.S.B. Leakey Foundation项目, Primate Conservation, Inc.项目
作者单位E-mail
杨敬元 湖北神农架国家级自然保护区管理局 神农架 442421 snjbhq@163.com 
刘学聪 中国科学院大学生命科学学院 北京 100049 xuecongliu@ucas.ac.cn 
廖明尧 湖北神农架国家级自然保护区管理局 神农架 442421  
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中文摘要:
      食物分布是灵长类行为生态学研究的重要内容之一。国内对川金丝猴(Rhinopithecus roxellana)的食物种类和喜好程度已进行了大量翔实的研究,但在食物的时空分布方面相对薄弱。在2006年8月~2008年7月的两年间,我们对神农架千家坪地区一个川金丝猴群的食物组成做了调查,同时通过样方法(每隔200 m的海拔梯度)研究了该猴群的食物在该地区的分布状况,以及食物分布海拔的季节性变化。结果表明,该猴群的食源植物至少有15种,占食物组成的55.0%,而地衣占食物组成的38.4%;该猴群的食物在某些海拔地带具集中分布趋势,但分布密度总体上不高,重要食源植物(占食物组成的 5.0%以上)的乔木胸高断面积和灌木冠部面积所占比例在任何季节分别小于12%和小于14%,约89%的乔木和81%的灌木表面没有地衣覆盖;食物主要分布在海拔1 900~2 500 m之间,可能制约着该猴群的活动海拔范围;植物性食物在海拔上的分布呈现明显的季节性差异,即春季和夏季比秋季和冬季的分布海拔低,这很可能引起该猴群活动海拔的季节性变化。
英文摘要:
      Food distribution is one of important aspects in the study of primate behavioral ecology. Although food species and preference of Rhinopithecus roxellana have been investigated in great detail, few studies have focused on its food distribution. In the period between August 2006 and July 2008, we quantified diet composition via instantaneous scans at 30 min intervals for a group of R. roxellana in Qianjiaping (area: ca. 60 km2; altitudes: 1 500~2 663 m), Shennongjia, China (Fig. 1), and meanwhile investigated its food distribution characteristics and seasonally altitudinal variation across its home range via vegetation transects at 200 m altitudinal gradients. The transect locations were selected as follows: 3 mountains were randomly selected from those with peaks higher than each altitudinal gradient between 1 500 m and 2 300 m, and then 1 transect (120 m ? 10 m) was made at each altitudinal gradient approximately at the central position of the eastern slope and western slope of each mountain, respectively; there was only 1 mountain with the peak higher than the altitude of 2 500 m, 1 transect (120 m ? 10 m) was first made at the altitudinal gradient of 2 500 m approximately at the central position of the eastern slope and western slope of this mountain, respectively, and then 1 transect (60 m ? 10 m) was made at the same altitudinal gradient with a distance of at least 500 m from the first transect at the eastern slope and western slope of the same mountain, respectively; those mountains were not counted if they were covered by alpine meadows at each altitudinal gradient; there were 32 transects with the size of 120 m ? 10 m and 2 transects with the size of 60 m ? 10 m in total, covering the area of 3.96 hm2. Within each transect, the DBHs (diameter at breast heights) of all trees (woody plants with the DBH of ≥ 30 cm or the height of ≥ 5 m), and the length and width of the crowns (estimated shrub coverage: length ? width) for all shrubs (woody plants with the DBH of < 30 cm and the height of < 5 m, and all lianas) were recorded. The proportions of tree basal area and shrub coverage at each altitudinal gradient and across the whole area were calculated for plants occupying ≥ 5.0% of the diet (defined as IFPs: important food plants) in any given season. The coverage of fruticose lichens on the surface of all trees and shrubs within each transect was estimated at 5 levels: I = 0%, 0% < II < 5%, 5% ≤ III < 10%, 10% ≤ IV < 20%, V ≥ 20%. The proportions of tree and shrub individuals with each coverage level by fruticose lichens at each altitudinal gradient were calculated, and the relationships between these proportions and altitudinal gradients were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation tests. Results showed that the animals ate at least 15 species of plants (occupying 55.0% of the overall diet) and fruticose lichens (occupying 38.4% of the overall diet) (Table 1). A detailed description of diet had been reported in Liu et al. (2013). In general, the density of food distribution was low across the area. IFPs accounted for 4.2~11.5% of tree basal area and 1.3~13.9% of shrub coverage in any give season (Fig. 2~3). About 89% of trees and 81% of shrubs were not loaded by fruticose lichens, and further only 0.8% of trees and 6.5% of shrubs had the coverage level of V (Fig. 4~5). Both IFPs and fruticose lichens were unevenly distributed across altitudes and mainly found at the altitudes between 1 900~2 500 m (Fig. 2~5), which may determine the limits of ranging altitudes of the animals. Specifically, the proportions of tree basal area of IFPs were highest at the altitudes of 1 900~2 100 m in spring and summer and at the altitudes of 2 100~2 300 m in autumn and winter, respectively (Fig. 2). The proportions of shrub coverage of IFPs were highest at the altitude of 2 500 m in spring and at the altitude of 2 100 m in summer, and were extremely small at any altitude in autumn and winter (Fig. 3). The seasonally altitudinal variation of IFPs might cause the animals to seasonally forage at different altitudes. The proportions of lichen-loading trees increased with altitudes (r = 0.94, P < 0.01), ranging from 5.8% at the altitude of 1 500 m to 23.0% at the altitude of 2 500 m (Fig. 4). The proportions of lichen-loading shrubs also tended to increase with altitudes (r = 0.77, P = 0.07), ranging from 8.7% at the altitude of 1 500 m to 45.5% at the altitude of 2 100 m (Fig. 5).
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