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张方,陈烛青,赵娟,陈潘.2015.噪音环境下花臭蛙求偶鸣声特征分析.动物学杂志,50(1):52-58.
噪音环境下花臭蛙求偶鸣声特征分析
Analyzing the characteristics of courtship calls of Odorrana schmackeri in noisy environment
投稿时间:2014-03-25  修订日期:2015-01-12
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201501007
中文关键词:  花臭蛙(Odorrana schmackeri)  声特征  环境噪音
英文关键词:Odorrana schmackeri  Vocal characteristics  Ambient noise
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31272326);安徽省教育厅重点项目(KJ2012A142)
作者单位E-mail
张方 安徽师范大学生命科学学院,241000 biologyzhf@126.com 
陈烛青 安徽师范大学生命科学学院  
赵娟 安徽师范大学生命科学学院  
陈潘 安徽师范大学环境科学与工程学院  
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中文摘要:
      2012年7月份,在黄山浮溪地区利用超声录音设备录制并分析了繁殖季节雄性花臭蛙(Odorrana schmackeri)个体的求偶鸣声。观察发现花臭蛙繁殖活动主要集中在7月中旬,繁殖高峰期活动无昼夜规律,全天均可见求偶鸣叫及抱对产卵等行为,并且多在浅水滩处活动。花臭蛙鸣声根据音节数和声谱特征可分为4种类型:即单音节音、婴儿音、双音节音和多音节断奏音,其中,单音节音、双音节音和婴儿音较为常见。利用SELENA软件给出4种声音的语图以及各自对应的能谱图,利用Sound Analysis pro v1.2对单音节音、双音节音和婴儿音的鸣声特征参数进行定量分析,分析的声音参数包括鸣叫持续时间、音节数、音节持续时间、音节间隔、主频、脉冲率等。结果表明花臭蛙鸣声的主频范围为1.8~4.5 kHz(n = 65)。鸣声不包括超声组分,主频峰值(3.1 ± 0.7)kHz,与前人电生理实验所得花臭蛙听觉敏感峰值一致,说明花臭蛙主要在这一频段进行通讯。对3种常见鸣叫音声音参数的单因素方差分析结果表明,双音节音与单音节音和婴儿音在声音持续时间上存在显著性差异(p < 0.01),双音节音和单音节音在第二谐波声强上也具有显著性差异(p = 0.01)。花臭蛙的双音节音在3种常见鸣叫音中具有最长的持续时间(99.5 ± 8.4 ms),故推测,双音节音为花臭蛙繁殖期主要求偶鸣声,并通过其鸣声时长的变化来体现自身品质的好坏。
英文摘要:
      In July 2012, using ultrasonic recording devices, we collected courtship calls from male Odorrana schmackeri at Fuxi, Mount Huangshan. We later analyzed the characteristics of these recorded sounds in our laboratory. From our observation, we discovered that breeding activities of O. schmackeri mainly peaked around mid-July. During this peak breeding period, courtship calls, spawning, and other mating activities occurred throughout the day and night, mostly near shallow waters. O. schmackeri calls can be categorized (by note number and sound spectrum) into four different vocal types: single-note, ‘infant'-note, double-note, and multi-note staccato. Among these four vocal types, single-note, double-note, and 'infant'-note are most common. Using the SELENA software, we generated the spectrograms and the corresponding power spectrums for each of the 4 vocal types. Using Sound Analysis pro v1.2, we performed quantitative analysis on the sound characteristic parameters of three vocal types: single-note, double-note, and 'infant'-note. Sound parameters we analyzed include: call duration (ms), note number, note duration (ms), note interval (ms), dominant frequency (Hz), pulse rate (1/s), etc. Our results show that the range of dominant frequency of O. schmackeri is from 1.8 to 4.5 kHz (n = 65). Excluding the ultrasonic range, results of auditory sensitivity peak value from prior electrophysiological experiments were consistent with the range of dominant frequency (3.1 ± 0.7 kHz) in current study. Such consistency indicates that O. schmackeri mainly communicates in this frequency band. Results from our Univariate ANOVA analysis reveal that there were significant differences in the call duration between double-note, single-note and ‘infant'-note (p < 0.01). Results also show significant differences in the intensity of the 2nd harmonic sound between double-note and single-note (p = 0.01). Between the three common vocal types, we have determined that the double-note has the longest call duration (99.5 ± 8.4 ms). Such determination allows us to speculate that this type of call might be used by O. schmackeri as its primary courtship call, and the duration of these double-note mating calls might be able to reflect the overall wellbeing of the caller.
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