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柯雯丹,杨晓菁.2015.武汉地区大山雀(Parus major minor)对major与minor亚种组鸣唱回放的差别反应.动物学杂志,50(1):41-51.
武汉地区大山雀(Parus major minor)对major与minor亚种组鸣唱回放的差别反应
Different Response of a Wuhan Population of Great Tit Parus major minor to Song Playbacks of Their Own (minor) and Foreign (major) Subspecies Groups
投稿时间:2014-07-16  修订日期:2014-12-29
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201501006
中文关键词:  大山雀  鸣唱  回放  major亚种组  minor亚种组
英文关键词:Parus major  Song  Playback  major subspecies group  minor subspecies group
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(No. 31000964)
作者单位E-mail
柯雯丹 中国地质大学武汉环境学院 武汉 430074 54377659@qq.com 
杨晓菁 中国地质大学武汉环境学院 武汉 430074 jogxoyang@cug.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      分析鸟类鸣声能为研究鸟类系统学和生物地理学提供重要信息。鸟类鸣声的地理变异能影响鸟类的性选择,进而导致不同地理种群间的生殖隔离,从而促进地方种群(或亚种)的分化,乃至新种的形成。在鸟类系统学研究中,鸣声回放实验是研究物种分化并衡量分类地位的一项重要研究手段。本实验以武汉地区大山雀(Parus major minor,隶属于minor亚种组)为实验对象进行鸣唱回放实验,观测其对来自欧亚大陆西部及北部各地的major亚种组和来自我国各地的minor亚种组大山雀鸣唱回放的反应,探讨实验对象能否区分来自上述两个不同亚种组的鸣唱,从而推断两亚种组之间是否存在足以导致识别障碍的鸣声分化,以致产生行为上的生殖隔离。本实验共测试了24只雄性大山雀,每个亚种组的鸣唱各回放给12个个体,通过记录不同行为反应指标来衡量每个受试个体的反应程度。统计分析结果显示,受试大山雀对major和minor亚种组鸣唱的反应有显著差异,对同为minor亚种组的鸣唱反应程度激烈,而对major亚种组鸣唱的反应微弱甚至大多无反应。由此认为,大山雀major和minor亚种组之间存在显著的鸣声分化,已达到能形成配对前生殖隔离的程度,从而一定程度上支持将大山雀拆分成不同种的说法。
英文摘要:
      Studies of vocal signals can offer useful information for avian systematics and biogeography. Geographic variation in songs within species has the potential to induce assortative mating, promote reproductive isolation, and consequently leads to divergence between populations and even speciation. Song playback experiments can be of great use in the studies of inferring phylogenetic relationships and assessing taxonomic ranks in birds. Here we carried out song playback experiments in a Wuhan population of great tit (Parus major minor, belonging to the minor subspecies group which is mainly from China) to explore whether the subjects can distinguish songs of its own subspecies group from songs of a foreign subspecies group, the major subspecies group, which is from the west and the north part of Eurasia. By means of comparisons of the subjects’ responses toward the song playbacks of the major and minor subspecies groups, we explored whether a potential behavioral isolation exists between them. We tested 24 male great tit individuals from nonadjacent territories in Wuhan, China, from March to May, 2014, with 12 birds tested for song playbacks from each group. Songs used for playbacks were of different song types and from different locations in the distribution ranges of both subspecies groups (see Fig. 1, Appendix 1). Each of the 24 song playback files was only for a single use as stimulus in a great tit territory. We used both qualitative and quantitative behavioural parameters to assess the responding behaviour of our subjects during and after the playback. We used Fisher’s Exact Test for comparisons on qualitative parameters between groups. Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparisons on quantitative responding behaviour parameters between groups. The results suggest that the difference in responses to the playbacks of the two subspecies groups is significant (see Fig. 2, Table 1). The responses to the minor song playbacks are generally intense while the responses to the major playbacks are weak and even there’s no response at all in most subjects (see Fig. 2, Table 2). Our results indicate that a considerable acoustic divergence, which can act as a potential reproductive isolation mechanism, exists between the major and minor subspecies groups of great tits, and thus support the suggestion of separate species in the Parus major complex.
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