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黄金清,李高岩,彭瑞明,张春光,赵亚辉.2015.多斑岭鳅嗅觉器官表面超微结构及其形态适应.动物学杂志,50(3):396-404.
多斑岭鳅嗅觉器官表面超微结构及其形态适应
SURFACE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM AND MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF A CAVE-DWELLING LOACH, OREONECTES POLYSTIGMUS
投稿时间:2014-10-09  修订日期:2015-04-13
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201503010
中文关键词:  岭鳅  洞穴鱼类  嗅囊  形态适应  扫描电镜
英文关键词:Oreonectes  cavefish morphological  adaptation evolution  China
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
作者单位E-mail
黄金清 广西师范大学生命科学学院 547704673@qq.com 
李高岩 广西壮族自治区贺州市新建路28号  
彭瑞明 广西壮族自治区富川瑶族自治县水产站  
张春光 中国科学院动物进化与系统学重点实验室中国科学院动物研究所  
赵亚辉 中国科学院动物进化与系统学重点实验室中国科学院动物研究所 zhaoyh@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      多斑岭鳅(Oreonectes polystigmus)是营洞穴生活的鱼类,嗅觉器官在其生活中发挥了重要作用。本文作者对保藏于中国科学院动物研究所鱼类标本馆的4尾多斑岭鳅标本进行了解剖,利用扫描电镜观察多斑岭鳅嗅囊上皮超微结构,以期了解嗅觉器官适应洞穴黑暗环境而产生的形态适应。多斑岭鳅的嗅囊呈椭圆型,嗅囊长径平均为1.24 mm,长径与眼径比平均为1.36,揭示为其“嗅觉”鱼类。其嗅轴为直线型,嗅囊腔内对称紧密排列两排嗅板,嗅板数为22–24个。单个嗅板呈卜状亚型,舌状突起较发达。观察发现非感觉纤毛连续广布在嗅板各个部位,但在嗅板近嗅轴处则较少,此处裸露的表皮多褶皱,其上分布很多细微小孔。感觉纤毛主要在非感觉纤毛分布较稀疏的地方。上皮表面微绒毛多,一般在非感觉纤毛下,前后两端嗅板上的微绒毛数量相对较少。多斑岭鳅嗅囊水动力机制应属纤毛摆动型。嗅孔数目分布不均,中间嗅板上的嗅孔较嗅轴前、后分布的嗅板为多,同一嗅板上近嗅轴处的嗅孔最多。由于纤毛分布不均,嗅上皮可分为裸露区和非裸露区,一般裸露区和非裸露区边界清晰,嗅轴上非感觉纤毛和微绒毛主要分布在非裸露区的凹槽里。嗅轴和嗅板近嗅轴处裸露区面积较大,嗅轴裸露区上皮被一系列的连续的微脊切割成多边形,多边形内具有许多隆起与小孔。嗅轴处正是嗅囊中水流回流的区域,为感受水中气味的重要位置,推测与洞穴生活的习性有密切关系。
英文摘要:
      Oreonectes polystigmus is a cave-dwelling loach distributed in the karst area of Guangxi, China. Its olfactory organ plays an important role in its activities. We observed the olfactory epithelium of O. polystigmus by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to get more knowledge and data on its morphological adaptation to the subterranean river, an extreme environment for animals. The olfactory organs of O. polystigmus are oval in shape, lying in the olfactory chamber. The average length of olfactory sac is 1.24 mm, 1.36 times of eye diameter, which revealed that O. polystigmus is a kind of “olfactory sensation” fish. The olfactory apparatus has 22 to 24 primary lamellae arranged on both sides of a narrow raphe. Each lamella has developed tongue-like structure. Non-sensory cilia are continuously distributed on the lamellae, only a few on the area closed to the raphe, where has many folds with plenty of tiny pores. Sensory cilia mainly locate the area with thin non-sensory cilia. Microvilli are always distributed under non-sensory cilia. The number of pits on the middle lamellae is more than one on the anterior and posterior lamellae. And on the same lamella, pits on the place close to raphe are denser than ones on anywhere else. Bare and non-bare regions on the lamella and raphe always have a clear boundary. Non sensory cilia and microvilli on the raphe are basically distributed in the grooves of non-bare region. Area of bare region on the raphe is almost equal to one of non-bare region. Epithelium of raphe is formed to a series of polygons by continued microridges. Comparing to some surface fish, O. polystigmus has dense non sensory cilia and a certain amount of sensory cilia and micro villi on the lamella and raphe, which are clearly typical characters adapted to the dark environment. Moreover, isosmate is the hydrodynamic mechanism for O. polystigmus, revealing its adaptation from another angle.
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