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徐国华,马鸣,吴道宁,刘垚.2016.高山兀鹫繁殖期交配及筑巢行为初步观察.动物学杂志,51(2):183-189.
高山兀鹫繁殖期交配及筑巢行为初步观察
Observation of the Mating and Nesting Behavior of Himalayan Vulture (Gyps himalayensis) during the Breeding Period
投稿时间:2015-04-30  修订日期:2016-03-04
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201602003
中文关键词:  高山兀鹫  红外相机  行为谱  交配行为  筑巢行为  天山
英文关键词:Himalayan Vulture(Gyps himalayensis)  Infra- red camera  Ethogram  Mating behavior  Nesting behavior  Tianshan Mountains
基金项目:国家自然科学(No. 31272291,30970340),香港观鸟会中国自然保育(No. 201202);* 通讯作者,E-mail:maming@ms.xjb.ac.cn;第一作者介绍徐国华,男,硕士研究生;研究方向动物生态学。 高山兀鹫繁殖期交配及筑巢行为初步观测
作者单位E-mail
徐国华 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 maming3211@sina.com 
马鸣 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 maming@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
吴道宁 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
刘垚 中国科学院大学  
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中文摘要:
      高山兀鹫(Gyps himalayensis)喜在悬崖峭壁之上营巢,海拔2400-4800m,行为观测难度较大,资料匮缺。2013-2015年,在天山采用样线调查法、问卷调查法,寻找到上百个巢穴。然后,布设红外自动相机,对高山兀鹫繁殖期巢内行为进行拍摄,同时结合行为扫描法,对其交配及巢内行为进行观察和研究。共拍摄11万张照片,选出有效照片2150张。绘制出繁殖前期行为谱,共7大类17种行为。根据行为谱对照片进行分类,其中交配135张(6.3%),筑巢403张(18.7%),休息420张(19.5%),警戒375张(17.4%),保养335张(15.6%),运动200张(9.3%),其他282张(13.1%)。交配行为次数(张数)在13:00-14:00达到高峰,这与气温的变化密切相关。筑巢行为在白天有三个高峰期,分别为11:00,13:00,15:00。在每个高峰期后,往往出现一个短暂的低谷期。冬季食物短缺,照片显示雕鸮(Bubo bubo)、雪豹(Uncia uncia)等食肉动物进入巢内,对兀鹫繁殖造成干扰,甚至中断繁殖。
英文摘要:
      Himalayan vulture (Gyps himalayensis) is preference to nest on the high cliffs (from 2400m to 4800m asl.). It is an almost endemic species to China and it is relatively rare in neighboring countries. Research on the behavior is very difficult and methods are primitive. We search about hundred nests by the line survey and questionnaire methods in Tianshan. To survey and monitor the mating and other nest behavior of Himalayan Vulture during the breeding period, we set infra-red cameras near nests from 2013 to 2015. The behavioral scanning method also used in it. The cameras took about 110 thousands photos, we selected 2150 valid photos. Seven types of behaviors were identified as mating, nesting, resting, alerting, maintain, locomotion and other including all the behaviors not mentioned above. Among which 135 (6.3%) was mating, 403 (18.7%) was nesting, 420 (19.5%) was resting, 375 (17.4%) was alerting, 335 (15.6%) was maintain, 200 (9.3%) was locomotion, 282 (13.1% ) was other. Mating behavior was the highest at 13:00-14:00 during the study period, which has a close relation with air temperature. The peak of nesting occurred 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00. After each nesting peak, a short trough often appeared behind it. In winter food shortage is a big problem during the breeding period. Photos show the predators into the vulture nest, such as eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and snow leopard (Uncia uncia), the reproductive of vulture was probably prolonged and ending due to the disturbance by predators.
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