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侯文杰,潘桂平,龙晓文,吴旭干,周文玉,成永旭.2016.三种饵料对三疣梭子蟹亚成体成活、蜕壳、生长和生化组成的影响.动物学杂志,51(4):642-654.
三种饵料对三疣梭子蟹亚成体成活、蜕壳、生长和生化组成的影响
Effects of Three Diets on Survival, Molting, Growth and Biochemical Composition of Pre-adult Portunus trituberculatus
投稿时间:2015-07-22  修订日期:2016-04-27
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201604016
中文关键词:  三疣梭子蟹  配合饲料  养殖性能  生化成分  蜕皮综合症
英文关键词:Portunus trituberculatus  Formulated diet  Culture performance  Biochemical composition  Molting death syndrome
基金项目:上海市科技兴农重点攻关项目 (农科攻字(2013)第 6-3号); 上海市农委青年人才成长计划项目(沪农青字(2014)第3-5 号);上海市自然科学基金项目(12ZR1413000); 上海高校水产学一流学科建设项目(沪教科2012-62)
作者单位E-mail
侯文杰 上海市水产研究所(上海市水产技术推广站) wjhou01@163.com 
潘桂平 上海市水产研究所(上海市水产技术推广站)  
龙晓文 上海海洋大学  
吴旭干 上海海洋大学 xgwu@shou.edu.cn 
周文玉 上海市水产研究所(上海市水产技术推广站)  
成永旭 上海海洋大学  
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中文摘要:
      为研究投喂配合饲料、杂鱼和猪肺对三疣梭子蟹亚成体的养殖性能和生化组成的影响,本研究采用单体框养和生化分析方法,以初始体重70g左右雌体为研究对象,研究了三种饵料对亚成体成活、蜕壳、生长、肝胰腺指数、肌肉指数、常规生化成分、脂肪酸组成的影响。结果显示:(1) 三组饵料对成活率影响显著,饲料组高达90%,杂鱼组仅为43%左右,主要是蜕壳死亡综合症(MDS)引起的; (2) 配合饲料组的蜕壳间隔最短,两次蜕壳个体百分比、终体重和特定增长率最高,杂鱼组蜕壳间隔最长,生长情况最差,猪肺组养殖性能居中;(3) 尽管配合饲料组的平均肝胰腺指数高于其它两组,但是三个饵料组的肝胰腺指数和肌肉指数均无显著差异;(4) 不同饵料对组织中常规生化组成影响显著,杂鱼组肝胰腺和肌肉中水分含量最低,其它成分含量最高,其它两组常规生化组成较为接近;(5)肝胰腺和肌肉中的主要脂肪酸百分含量均受所投喂饵料脂肪酸组成的显著影响,杂鱼组组织中HUFA含量最高,猪肺组饱和脂肪酸和单不饱和脂肪酸含量最高,但多不饱和脂肪酸含量最低;整体上,杂鱼组蟹对饵料中EPA和DHA相对保留率最低,猪肺组蟹最高。综上,研制的配合饲料能够提高三疣梭子蟹亚成体的养殖性能,能够在一定程度上替代广泛使用的杂鱼等冰鲜饵料。
英文摘要:
      Although trash fish is the major traditional diets for the current pond culture of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, feeding formulated diets are the future trend for the sustainable culture of P. trituberculatus. However, no available information could be found on the comparison of culture performance for feeding formulated diets and trash fish to pre-adult P. trituberculatus. By the individuals culture technique and biochemical analysis, this study was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of formualted diets (FD), trash fish (TF) and pig lung (PL) on the survival, molting, growth and biochemical composition of pre-adult P. trituberculatus (initial mean wet weight was around 70g). All statistical anlysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software. Homogeneity of variance was tested by Levene’s test. When necessary, arcsine or square root were performed for the percentage data prior to analysis. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for experimental data, and the Tukey s-b(K) test was used for multiple comparisons. The results are shown as the followings: (1) The diets had the significant effects on survival of pre-adult P. trituberculatus. FD treatment had the highest survival (90%) while the lowest survival (43%) was recorded in TF treatment (Table 3), and most of death was because of molting death syndrome (MDS). (2) FD treatment had the the shortest molting period, the highest percentage of crabs finished two molting during the culture experiment, the highest final body weight and specific growth rate (SGR) among the three treatments while the TF treatment had the lowest culture performance (Table 3). (3) Although FD treatment had the higher hepatopancreatic index than the other treatments, there was no significant difference among the three treatments (Table 3). (4) The diets had the significant effects on the proximate compositions of pre-adult P. trituberculatus (Table 3). The hepatopancreas and muscle of TF treatment had the lowest moisture content, but the highest contents of the other proximate compositions among the three treatments, while the contents of proximate compositions were similar for the other two treatments (Table 4). The fatty acid composition of hepatopancrea and muscle was significantly affected by the dietary fatty acids. TF treatment had the highest levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids while PL treatment had the highest levels of saturated fatty acids and mono- unsaturated fatty acids (Table 5,Table 6). Overall, TF treatment had the lowest relative retention rate of DHA(22:6n3) and EPA(20:5n3), but PL treatment had the highest relative retention rate of these two fatty acids (Table 7). In conclusion, the developed formualted diet could improve the culture performance for the pre-adult P. trituberculatus, which could be used to replace wildly used trash fish for a certain extent in the pond culture of P. trituberculatus.
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