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苏化龙,钱法文,张国刚,江红星,刘冬平,朵海瑞,张勇,果洛?周杰.2016.青藏高原胡兀鹫与巢域中峭壁生境营巢鸟类的种间互动关系初探.动物学杂志,51(6):949-968.
青藏高原胡兀鹫与巢域中峭壁生境营巢鸟类的种间互动关系初探
Preliminary Exploration to Interspecific Interaction between the Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus and Other Birds of Nesting Cliffs in the Home Range
投稿时间:2015-08-24  修订日期:2016-10-18
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201606003
中文关键词:  胡兀鹫  种间互动  同种巢间距变化  青藏高原  
英文关键词:Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus barbatus  Interespecific interaction  Variation of intrapecific inter-nest distances  Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31071933),林业科技支撑计划项目(No. 2006BA003A1307);
作者单位E-mail
苏化龙 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室 北京 100091 suhualong@sina.cn 
钱法文 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室 北京 100091  
张国刚 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室 北京 100091  
江红星 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室 北京 100091  
刘冬平 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室 北京 100091  
朵海瑞 北京林业大学自然保护区学院 北京 100083  
张勇 甘肃尕海-则岔国家级自然保护区管理局 碌曲 747200  
果洛?周杰 年保玉则生态环境保护协会久治 624700  
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中文摘要:
      胡兀鹫(Gypaetus barbatus)是峭壁生境营巢鸟类,其领域是关系到繁殖与生存的必需资源。2010 ~ 2013年,在青藏高原4个省区中的7个胡兀鹫繁殖地进行了调查,结合1990 ~ 1993年的调查资料,用直接观察法记录了12个胡兀鹫繁殖巢域(距巢址500 m范围内)中的峭壁生境营巢繁殖鸟类,并初步评估了这些鸟类与胡兀鹫的种间关系。结果表明,巢区中观察到其体型可引起胡兀鹫警觉反应的鸟类计有23种,营巢繁殖的有11种。繁殖鸟类中猛禽有高山兀鹫(Gyps himalayensis)、猎隼(Felco cherrug)、金雕(Aquila chrysaetos)、大 (Buteo hemilasius)、长耳鸮(Asio otus)5种,鸦科鸟类有红嘴山鸦(Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax)、黄嘴山鸦(P. graculus)和大嘴乌鸦(Corvus macrorhynchos)3种。前述23种可引起胡兀鹫警觉反应的鸟类在胡兀鹫巢域中被记录到的活动行为频次为1 298次?只,观察到12种鸟与胡兀鹫发生种间互动行为,频次合计65次,其中鸦科鸟类与胡兀鹫发生的种间互动行为频次最高(34次)。观察到胡兀鹫驱赶巢域内的捕猎金雕导致其放弃猎物的行为。对种间关系的初步评估结论为:(1)毗邻高山兀鹫繁殖巢的胡兀鹫,表现出同种繁殖对之间巢间距明显缩短的现象,其巢间距由35.84 km(25.10 ~ 47.30 km,n = 6个巢)缩短至7.39 km(6.22 ~ 8.58 km,n = 5个巢);(2)在胡兀鹫巢域中营巢繁殖的猎隼,其同种间巢间距缩短至150 ~ 360 m(n = 4个巢);(3)由于高山兀鹫在当地传统文化习俗中的重要地位,胡兀鹫与其毗邻营巢,可以在很大程度上降低人类直接干扰活动对其繁殖成功率的不利影响;(4)在人为干扰活动或其他原因导致胡兀鹫亲鸟离巢的情况下,鸦科鸟类和捕食性猛禽(尤其是猎隼)的存在,在很大程度上增加了胡兀鹫卵和幼雏被天敌掠食的可能性;(5)胡兀鹫育雏早期需要获取肉含量高的食物(体型较小的死亡动物),在胡兀鹫巢域或附近区域营巢的捕食性猛禽所遗落的猎物,很可能具有一定程度的补充作用。
英文摘要:
      The Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) is a cliff-nesting Accipitrinae bird, its territoriality is associated with the resources necessary for breeding and survival. This paper presents data of 7 breeding sites of the Bearded Vulture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau collected from 1991 to 1993 and from 2010 to 2013. In total, 393 h of observation over 90 days were carried out during the investigation. Cliff-nesting birds were recorded by direct observation in 12 home ranges (a radius of 500 m away from the nests) of the Bearded Vulture (Table 1). According to our observation, 23 species of birds could arouse vigilance of the Bearded Vulture, with 11 species being nesting in their home ranges, such as Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis) ( > 107 nests), Saker Falcon (Felco cherrug) (8 nests), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) (3 nests), Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) (3 nests) and Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (1 nest), 3 species of Corvidae (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, P. graculus and Corvus macrorhynchos) (5 nests), Pigeons (Columba leuconota and C. rupestris) ( > 96 nests) and Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) (1 nests). For the total recorded 1 298 viligances caused by the 23 species, 65 interspecific interactions were observed between 12 species of birds and the Bearded Vultures, and the highest interspecific interaction frequency was the birds of Corvidae and the Bearded Vultures (34 times, 53.31% of all 12 species of birds) (Table 2). We also observed once that the Golden Eagle gave up its prey owing to the driving behavior of a Bearded Vulture in its home range. The preliminary knowledge of interspecific relationship is as following: (1) The nests of Bearded Vulture adjacent to Himalayan Griffon′s community nests, showed a relatively shorter inter-nest distance, which reduced from a range of 35.84 km (25.10﹣47.30 km, n = 6) to 7.39 km (6.22﹣8.58 km, n = 5); (2) The inter-nest distance of Saker Falcons nests in home ranges of Bearded Vulture could be only 150﹣360 m (n = 4), much shorter than ones in eastern China (1.71﹣2.00 km) and western China (the nearest distance is 2.50 km, usually from 4 to 8 km or farther); (3) As the importance of Himalayan Griffon in the local traditional culture and customs, for the nests of Bearded Vultures adjacent to the Himalayan Griffon′s community nests, the adverse effects of human disturbance on theie breeding success were reduced to a great exten; (4) When the Bearded Vultures temporarily left their nests (either for foraging or by human disturbance), the existence of Corvidae and raptorial birds (especially the Saker Falcons), could increase the possibility of their eggs and chicks being preyed; (5) During the chick-rearing period (especially the first month of chick-rearing), the lost preies of small dead animals from the raptorial birds nesting in Bearded Vulture′s home range or in the vicinity area might partly play an important supplementary role for feeding the youngs of Bearded Vulture.
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