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霍娟,粟通萍,陈光平,牛楠,邵玲,梁伟.2016.两种近缘鸟种麻雀和山麻雀的咬合力比较.动物学杂志,51(5):771-776.
两种近缘鸟种麻雀和山麻雀的咬合力比较
Comparison of Bite Force between Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) and Russet Sparrow (P. cinnamomeus)
投稿时间:2015-11-05  修订日期:2016-08-17
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201605007
中文关键词:  喙型  咬合力  生态适应  山麻雀  麻雀
英文关键词:Beak morphology  Bite force  Ecological adaptation  Russet Sparrow, Passer cinnamomeus  Tree Sparrow, P. montanus
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
霍娟 热带动植物生态学省部共建教育部重点实验室海南师范大学生命科学学院 huojuan007@126.com 
粟通萍 热带动植物生态学省部共建教育部重点实验室海南师范大学生命科学学院  
陈光平 贵州宽阔水国家级自然保护区管理局  
牛楠 热带动植物生态学省部共建教育部重点实验室海南师范大学生命科学学院  
邵玲 热带动植物生态学省部共建教育部重点实验室海南师范大学生命科学学院  
梁伟 热带动植物生态学省部共建教育部重点实验室海南师范大学生命科学学院 liangw@hainan.net 
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中文摘要:
      鸟类的咬合力受食性、种内竞争和捕食压力等多种生态因素的影响,可作为其生态适应特征的重要指标。但目前关于鸟类的咬合力及其影响因素却鲜有研究,为此,我们使用咬合力传感器,对同属的两个近缘鸟种,麻雀(Passer montanus)和山麻雀(P. cinnamomeus)的咬合力进行了比较研究。结果表明,山麻雀(n = 12)的咬合力显著大于麻雀(n = 59)(t = 3.754,P < 0.01),但山麻雀(t = 0.449,P > 0.05)和麻雀(Z =﹣1.198,P > 0.05)的雌雄个体间咬合力均无差异,同时,山麻雀的头宽(t =﹣3.713,P < 0.01)、头高(t =﹣5.405,P < 0.01)和喙宽(t =﹣6.201,P < 0.01)均显著大于麻雀。尽管个体的咬合力与其身体各参数指标无显著相关性,但在种间,头和喙的大小可能是影响两者咬合力的重要因素,由于两者的一些生态适应特征可通过头大小和喙型体现,推测两者生境和食性的差异可能是影响其咬合力大小的主要原因。
英文摘要:
      Bird bite force could be an indication of evolutionary adaptation in avian head and beak morphology, and thus an important indicator of ecological adaptation characteristic such as food type, intraspecific competition and predation pressure. However, there has been little work on bird bite force and its influencing factors. In this study, we compared bite forces of two sister sparrow species from the Passeridae family, the Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) and Russet Sparrow (P. cinnamomeus), by using a bite force transducer. The results showed that bite force of Russet Sparrow (n = 12) was significantly stronger than that of Tree Sparrow (n = 59) (Fig. 1, t = 3.754, P < 0.01), however, there was no difference in sex of Russet Sparrow (t = 0.449, P > 0.05) or Tree Sparrow (Z =﹣1.198, P > 0.05) (Fig. 2).The head width (t =﹣3.713, P < 0.01), head depth (t =﹣5.405, P < 0.01) and beak width (t =﹣6.201, P < 0.01) of the Russet Sparrow were also much bigger than those of the Tree Sparrow (Table 1). Although our results showed that the bite force was not related to any body parameter in individuals of the two sparrow species (Table 2), it was indicated that head size and bill width might be related to the bite force in interspecific species competition. The difference in bite force of these two sparrow species may be due to their different habitats and food types. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first quantitative study of bird bite force in China.
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