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杨天燕,孟玮,海萨,牛建功,周琼.2017.基于线粒体Cyt b序列对新疆额尔齐斯河贝加尔雅罗鱼遗传结构的分析.动物学杂志,52(2):304-313.
基于线粒体Cyt b序列对新疆额尔齐斯河贝加尔雅罗鱼遗传结构的分析
Population Genetic Structure of Siberian Dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis) in Irtysh River China Based on the Cyt b Gene Sequences
投稿时间:2016-01-18  最后修改时间:2017-02-16
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201702014
中文关键词:  贝加尔雅罗鱼  线粒体Cyt b基因  遗传结构  种群扩张
英文关键词:Siberian Dace, Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis  Cyt b gene  Genetic structure  Population expansion
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金项目(No. 2012211B57),国家科技基础性工作专项(No. 2012FY112700),国家水产种质资源平台项目(No. 2016DKA30470)
作者单位E-mail
杨天燕 新疆维吾尔自治区水产科学研究所 hellojelly1130@163.com 
孟玮 新疆维吾尔自治区水产科学研究所 mengwei1982@hotmail.com 
海萨 新疆维吾尔自治区水产科学研究所  
牛建功 新疆维吾尔自治区水产科学研究所  
周琼 华中农业大学水产学院  
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中文摘要:
      采用线粒体Cyt b基因序列对额尔齐斯河流域的青河(QH,18尾)、哈巴河(HBH,21尾)、185团(185T,18尾)和乌伦古湖(WLG,20尾)4个贝加尔雅罗鱼(Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis)群体进行了遗传结构的比较分析。在片段长度为1 109 bp的同源序列上,77尾个体共检测到54种单倍型,其中共享单倍型7个,总单倍型多样性指数(Hd)、总核苷酸多样性指数(π)和平均核苷酸差异数(K)分别为0.981 9、0.008 21和9.091,且185团群体单倍型多样性指数和核苷酸多样性指数最高、青河群体最低。4个群体间遗传距离在0.006 ~ 0.011之间,基于Kimura 2- parameter法构建的单倍型邻接关系树分为3支,群体间遗传关系和地理分布没有明显的相关性。AMOVA分析显示额尔齐斯河流域贝加尔雅罗鱼遗传差异极显著(P < 0.01)。青河和乌伦古湖群体基因流(Nm)远高于其他群体间,推测乌伦古河或许是二者进行基因交流的渠道。尽管单倍型核苷酸不配对分布呈双峰,但偏差平方和(Q)与粗糙指数(r)均不显著(P > 0.05),且Tajima′s D和Fu′s Fs检验也均显著偏离中性,结合群体呈现高单倍型多样性和低核苷酸多样性的特点,推测贝加尔雅罗鱼经历了群体扩张事件。参考已校正的鲤科鱼类Cyt b基因0.76%/Ma的进化速率,估算群体扩张的时间大约在1.97 Ma前的更新世中晚期,推测该时期阿尔泰山地区发生的冰川作用和频繁的古地震造成的地理隔离和融合可能是贝加尔雅罗鱼发生群体扩张的重要原因。
英文摘要:
      The genetic structures of four Siberian Dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis) populations (Qinghe QH, Haba River HBH, 185 Regiment 185T and Ulungur Lake WLG, Fig. 1) from Irtysh River were analyzed by mtDNA Cyt b gene marker. A total of 1 109 bp sequences were obtained and 54 haplotypes were found among 77 individuals including 7 shared haplotypes. Total haplotype diversity (Hd), total nucleotide diversity (π) and average nucleotide difference (K) were 0.981 9, 0.008 21 and 9.091 (Table 1), respectively. The haplotype and nucleotide diversity of 185T were the highest, whereas those of QH were the lowest. The genetic distance among four populations ranged from 0.006 to 0.011. Neighborhood-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree of all haplotypes based on Kimura 2- parameter method was divided to three branches (Fig. 2). There was no significant correlation between genetic relationship and geographical distance. AMOVA analysis showed differences among Siberian Dace populations were extremely significant (P < 0.01, Table 3). The gene flow (Nm) between QH and WLG was much higher than other populations, indicating Ulungur River was the genetic communication channel between them (Table 2). Although nucleotide mismatch distribution was bimodal, both sum of squared deviation (Q) and raggedness index (r) were not significant (P > 0.05, Fig. 3). Meanwhile, Tajima′s D and Fu′s Fs neutral test gave positive values, in combination with high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity, authors still considered Siberian Dace experienced population expansion. Applying 0.76% divergence rate of Cyt b gene sequence in Cyprinid fish, the divergence of Siberian Dace occurred about 1.97 Ma years ago during the middle-late Pleistocene. It was supposed that geographical isolation and fusion caused by glaciation and frequent paleo-earthquake in Altai region were the important reasons for population expansion.
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