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姜晓东,吴旭干,张金彪,何杰,刘青,葛永春,成永旭.2017.三种饵料模式对中华绒螯蟹蟹种早期养殖性能、非特异免疫性能及抗病力的影响.动物学杂志,52(1):85-96.
三种饵料模式对中华绒螯蟹蟹种早期养殖性能、非特异免疫性能及抗病力的影响
Effects of Three Feeding Modes on Early Culture Performance, Non-specific Immunity and Disease Resistance of Juvenile Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)
投稿时间:2016-02-01  修订日期:2016-12-20
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201701010
中文关键词:  中华绒螯蟹  扣蟹养殖  投喂模式  蟹种质量  比较研究
英文关键词:Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis  Juvenile culture  Feeding modes  Crab seed quality  Comparative study
基金项目:科技部港澳台科技合作专项项目(No. 2014DFT30270),科技部科技型中小企业技术创新项目(No. 14C26213201214),上海市科委科研计划项目(No. 13231203504),上海高校水产学一流学科建设项目(No. 2012-62-0908);
作者单位E-mail
姜晓东 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 310410555@qq.com 
吴旭干 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 xgwu@shou.edu.cn 
张金彪 常州市金坛区水产技术指导站  
何杰 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室  
刘青 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室上海海洋大学上海市教委水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心  
葛永春 上海登瀛水产养殖专业合作社  
成永旭 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室上海海洋大学上海市教委水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心  
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中文摘要:
      为评估不同投喂模式对中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)蟹种质量的影响,采用养殖实验、非特异性免疫指标分析和攻毒实验方法,比较了配合饲料、传统饵料和混合投喂模式培育扣蟹在成蟹养殖早期的养殖性能、免疫性能和攻毒后死亡率的变化。所检测的非特异性免疫指标包括碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、γ-谷氨酰转移酶(γ-GT)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、酚氧化酶(PO)、过氧化物酶(POD)、丙二醛(MDA)、一氧化氮(NO)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)及血蓝蛋白(Hc)活性或含量。采用毒力较强的嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophilia)Y-2-L-1菌株进行攻毒实验。结果显示:(1)论雄蟹还是雌蟹,配合饲料组第一次蜕壳间期均短于传统投喂和混合投喂模式,且配合饲料组增重率(WGR)及体重特定增长率(SGR)均显著高于另外两组(P < 0.05);(2)就肝胰腺中非特异性免疫指标而言,论雄蟹还是雌蟹,配合饲料组γ-谷氨酰转移酶(γ-GT)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性均高于另外两组,其中γ-谷氨酰转移酶(γ-GT)差异显著;传统投喂组酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、丙二醛(MDA)、一氧化氮(NO)和过氧化物酶(POD)含量均高于另外两组,其中酸性磷酸酶(ACP)和一氧化氮(NO)含量差异显著;(3)就血清中各免疫指标而言,配合饲料组谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)和总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)活性高于另外两组,但差异均不显著(P > 0.05),传统投喂组碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、丙二醛(MDA)及血蓝蛋白(Hc)等指标含量均高于另外两组,其中丙二醛(MDA)差异显著;(4)论雄蟹还是雌蟹,传统投喂组扣蟹攻毒后12 ~ 96 h的累计死亡率一直高于配合饲料组和混合投喂组,配合饲料组和混合投喂组雄体攻毒后的累计死亡率接近,混合投喂组雌体累计死亡率居于传统投喂组和配合饲料组之间。综上,投喂配合饲料可以提高扣蟹在成蟹早期的养殖性能、免疫性能和攻毒后的成活率,有利于提高蟹种质量。
英文摘要:
      Formulated diet, traditional diet and their mixture are three common feeding modes for the culture of juvenile Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis), but their effects on crab seed quality are unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare and evaluate the effects of three feeding modes on the early culture performance, immunity and the mortality during the pathogen challenge test for the juvenile crabs. The non-special immune indices include alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, total antioxidant capacity, superoxyde dismutase, phenoloxidase, peroxidase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and hemocyanin. The poison test used the strain of Aeromnas hvdrophilia Y-2-L-1 whose virulence is strong. The results showed that: (1) In both males and females, formulated diets treatment caused a shorter period of first molting than traditional diets treatment and mixture diets treatment, and significant higher weight gain rate and specific growth rate (P < 0.05) (Table 3); (2) In terms of the non-specific immune indices in the hepatopancreas, although formulated diets treatment cuased higher activity of γ-glutamyl transferase, total antioxidant capacity and superoxyde dismutase than traditional diets treatment and mixture diets treatment, the only significant difference was found in γ-glutamyl transferase; however the traditional diets treatment caused higher acid phosphatase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and peroxidase activities than the other two treatments, while the significant differences were found in acid phosphatase and nitric oxide for both males and females (Table 4); (3) In terms of the non-specific immune indexes in hemolymph, formulated diets treatment group had higher glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity activities than the traditional diets treatment and mixture diets treatment while traditional diets treatment group had higher alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, malondialdehyde and hemocyanin than other two treatments; among these indices, significant difference was found only in malondialdehyde (Table 5); (4) During the pathogen challenge test within 12﹣96 h, traditional diets treatment group had higher cumulative mortality than the other two groups in both males and females; similar cumulative mortality was detected for the males of formulated diets treatment and mixture diets treatment while the cumulative mortality of mixture diets treatment females ranged between formulated diets treatment and traditional diets treatment (Fig. 1). In conclusion, feeding of formulated diets can improve early culture performance, immunity and survival during the pathogen challenge test of juvenile Chinese Mitten Crab, suggesting that our optimized formulated diets could improve the quality of crab seeds for Chinese Mitten Crab.
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