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苏化龙,肖文发.2017.三峡库区不同阶段蓄水前后江面江岸冬季鸟类动态.动物学杂志,52(6):911-936.
三峡库区不同阶段蓄水前后江面江岸冬季鸟类动态
Status of Wintering Birdsalong the Changjiang River of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area before and after Different Water Storage Stages
投稿时间:2016-02-03  修订日期:2017-11-08
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201706001
中文关键词:  隆冬季节  鸟类状况  蓄水前后  三峡水库
英文关键词:Middle winter  Birds census  Water level line  Three Gorges Reservoir Area
基金项目:国务院三峡工程建设委员会与国家林业局项目(No. SX2004-025),林业科技支撑计划项目(No. 2006BA003A1307)
作者单位E-mail
苏化龙 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室 北京 100091 suhualong@sina.cn 
肖文发 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室 北京 100091  
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中文摘要:
      2003 ~ 2013年的隆冬季节(2011年除外),对三峡库区长江主河道的重庆朝天门港-秭归茅坪港江段(全程约618.30 km)和12条一级支流(合计调查河道长度约619.49 km),以及2个湖泊(长寿湖65.5 km2,大洪湖30 km2;调查年份2000 ~ 2013年,2003和2011年除外),进行了水禽及傍水栖息鸟类的监测调查。观察统计到鸟类76种,隶属8目14科39属,其中国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物1种,Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物3种。鉴于不同类群鸟类对环境变化的反应差别较大,将观察到的与水域生境密切相关的鸟类分为游禽类(32种)、鸥类(6种)、涉禽类(23种)、傍水栖息鸟类(13种)和空中傍水栖息鸟类[2种,以崖沙燕(Riparia riparia)为主体]等5种类型,并对各类群鸟类在三峡水库不同工程阶段蓄水高程前后的数量分布状况进行对比分析。结果显示,长江主河道中的游禽类在蓄水139 m高程前后数量波动幅度不大,蓄水156 m高程后表现出增长趋势,并且趋向于尾水点集中分布,直至最终蓄水目标175 m高程后的第5个冬季(2013年1月)数量猛增到最高,与蓄水139 m水位线前后的2个冬季(2003年1月和2004年1月)数量相比,增幅分别达171.83%和179.91%;然而2个湖泊中的游禽数值却表现出下降趋势,蓄水175 m高程后5个冬季(2008 ~ 2013年)与2000年冬季数值相比,降幅达52.96% ~ 83.29%;大多数支流河道中的游禽数量呈现波动幅度不大或是明显下降趋势,只有乌江和小江这2条支流河道中的游禽数量呈现出增长趋势,并且小江中的游禽数量一度表现出“爆发式”增长现象后又大幅回落(2012 ~ 2013年),可能与水质富营养化程度的变化相关。涉禽类在长江主河道中的分布格局类似于游禽类(偏向于上游),其数量分别在蓄水139 m高程和156 m高程后的第1个冬季出现峰值,蓄水前后的其他年份数量差别不大;多数支流河道中涉禽类分布数量不高,只有嘉陵江、乌江、小江、大宁河与梅溪河的涉禽数量较多且数值波动明显。傍水栖息型鸟类总体数量在蓄水前后出现急剧变动,数量下降明显,个别鸟种甚至消失不见。空中傍水栖息型鸟类蓄水之后在长江主河道数量锐减,在大多数支流河道中几乎绝迹。鸥类主要分布在长江主河道,其数量在不同阶段蓄水初期出现峰值,至最终蓄水目标175 m后的第5个冬季其数量趋于接近蓄水之前。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the influence of the Three Gorges Project on the wetland birds in the reservoir area, including the changes on diversity, distribution pattern and population quantity, and to provide comparative data of ecological environment after the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, from 2003 to 2013 (except 2011), we carried out a monitoring survey upon the birds′ distribution status during the middle of winter along the main river of the Changjiang River and the 12 primary tributaries, and in 2 lakes (from 2000 to 2013, except 2003 and 2011) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The Changjiang River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is divided into different segments and the lengths are as follows: Chongqing (Chaotianmen Wharf)﹣Changshou (74.20 km), Changshou﹣Fuling (47.80 km), Fuling﹣Fengdu (52.80 km), Fengdu﹣Zhongxian (63.90 km), Zhongxian﹣Wanzhou (89.40 km), Wanzhou﹣Yunyang (old town pier) (63.10 km), Yunyang﹣Fengjie (64.00 km), Fengjie﹣Wushan (40.40 km), Wushan﹣Badong (56.50 km), Badong﹣Zigui (Mao Ping Wharf) (66.20 km), the whole journey is about 618.30 km. We also investigated 12 primary tributaries, their names and the length from the mouth to the upper reachesare as follows: Jialingjiang (56.90 km), Mudonghe (11.60 km), Wujiang (236.25 km), Xiaojiang (69.00 km), Tangxihe (30.00 km), Modaoxi (22.80 km), Meixihe (18.00 km), Daxihe (14.10 km), Daninghe (68.00 km), Yanduhe (25.50 km), Xiangxihe (31.79 km), Jiuwanxi (12.82 km). The total length of these tributary rivers is about 619.49 km. Two artificial lakes were also investigated, one is the Changshouhu Lake of 65.5 km2, about 22 km from the Changjiang River, built in 1956; the other is the Dahonghu Lake of close to 30 km2, about 17 km from the Changjiang River, built in 1958. The annual bird surveys were conducted during 8th to 28th in January. Observers made censuses of the birds at the front deck of a passenger ship by using hand-held binoculars, with unilateral width of 300 m (bilateral width 600 m), and recorded bird species and numbers, also the sample line survey data and information. The ship′s speed range was from 10 to 24 km/hour. After the water level reached 156 m, as daytime long-distance passenger ships were gradually reduced or even disappeared, we took small fishing boats (speed range from 8 to 12 km/h) for the census. For some branch rivers we could not sail (normally before the water level reached 175 m), we made line transects for bird censuses on foot or by low-speed car (10﹣20 km/h). A total of 76 bird species belonging to 8 orders and 14 families were recorded, with one species (Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamantus) listed as the Level Ⅰ National Key Protected Wild Animals and 3 species (Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus, Red-necked Grebe P. grisegena and Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata) being the Level Ⅱ. The observed birds were divided into 5 communities: the natatory birds (32 species), the gulls (6 species), the waders (23 species), the river-closing birds (13 species) and the birds inhabiting above the water (2 species, mainly the Sand Martin Riparia riparia). The results indicated that these bird communities were different greatly in reaction to the variation of water environment before and after the water level rising to 139 m, 156 m and 175 m of elevation. Quantity fluctuation of the natatory birds were not obvious before and after the water level rising to 139 m, however, when the water level reached to 156 m (Jan. 2007), their number showed an increasing trend until the final 175 m water level during the fifth winter (Jan. 2013), and soared to the highest value of 3 860 individuals, 2.72 and 2.80 times as many as in the January of 2003 and 2004, when the water level was lower and over 139 m (Appendix 1). The natatory birds in the 2 lakes showed downward trend, with the number of birds fell by 83.29% (in 2009) to 52.96% (in 2013) after the water level of 175 m (2008﹣2013, except 2011) compared with that in 2000 (Appendix 6). In most of the tributaries of the Changjiang River, the number of natatory birds showed small fluctuations or obviously decreasing, only in Wujiang River and Xiaojiang River showed a growth trend. The number of natatory birds in the Xiaojiang River was showing explosive growth phenomenon and then fell sharply (2012﹣2013), the relevant change might be related to the degree of eutrophication. The gulls were mainly distributed in the main channel of the Changjiang River, and their peak values appeared in the early stages of different water storage period (Appendix 2), possibly related to the amplification of the initial impoundment of water, as floating objects on water may be a potential source of food. The wader′s distribution pattern was similar to the natatores, with the number reaching the peaks in the first winter after the 139 m and 156 m water levels, however, without much quantity difference in other years. There were not much waders in most tributaries of the river, only in the Jialingjiang River, Wujiang River, Xiaojiang River, Daninghe River and Meixihe River, there were large number of waders and showed obvious numerical fluctuations between years (Appendix 3). The total number of the river-closing birds and the birds inhabiting above the water (mainly Sand Martin), showed a sharp change in the water level before and after the rise, their numbers dropped significantly, and some species even disappeared (Appendix 4, Appendix 5). In summary, water storage showed positive or negative effects on different communities of birds in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. It might be positive effects for the swimming and wading birds, for example, water surface expansion (main river channel of the Changjiang River) and water eutrophication (Xiaojiang River), but excessive eutrophication will be a negative impact such as the Daninghe River and other tributaries. It had negative effects for the river-closing birds and birds inhabiting above the water (mainly Sand Martin), as their nesting habitat were flooded and the loss of their food source.
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