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宋文宇,韩联宪,邓章文.2017.紫水鸡非繁殖期日节律与时间分配.动物学杂志,52(2):217-226.
紫水鸡非繁殖期日节律与时间分配
Diurnal Rhythm and Time Budget of Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) in Non-breeding Season
投稿时间:2016-04-05  最后修改时间:2017-02-13
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201702005
中文关键词:  紫水鸡  日节律  时间分配  行为对策  洱源西湖
英文关键词:Purple Swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio  Diurnal rhythm  Time budget  Behavioral strategies  Eryuan Xihu Wetland
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
宋文宇 大理大学病原与媒介生物研究所 merlin_song@hotmail.com 
韩联宪 西南林业大学生命科学院 hlxyn@qq.com 
邓章文 广西壮族自治区林业勘测设计院  
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中文摘要:
      2011年1月至11月使用瞬时扫描法及焦点动物取样法对云南省大理市洱源县西湖湿地(26°00′ ~ 26°01′N,100°02′ ~ 100°03′E,平均海拔1 970 m)的紫水鸡(Porphyrio porphyrio)行为进行了观察,将行为定义为取食、寻食、休息、修饰、警戒、位移和其他共7类,扫描时将取食和寻食合并为觅食,分析非繁殖期的日节律和时间分配特点。觅食高峰出现在早晨和傍晚,低谷在秋季为下午14:30时(占所有行为类型56.56%)、冬季12:30时(55.61%)、春季11:00时(55.80%)。休息高峰秋季出现在12:30时(26.79%),冬季一日内呈上升趋势,春季呈双峰型,低谷在13:30时(14.64%)。从时间分配来看,寻食、取食、修饰等行为在不同季节间存在显著差异,寻食时间从高至低依次为冬季、春季、秋季,分别占总活动时间的19.87%、9.36%、3.03%;取食时间则相反,依次为秋季(72.54%)、春季(56.78%)及冬季(44.59%);与新西兰Pukepuke Lagoon种群相比,西湖湿地紫水鸡种群在秋季大量取食,在冬季增加寻食和休息时间,以应对高原湿地的温度和食物变化。修饰行为在繁殖期前(春季)最多(15.84%),繁殖期后(秋季)减少(11.10%)。以上结果说明,为适应气候、食物等条件的年周期变化,紫水鸡行为策略在不同时期和地点具有可塑性,这可能是该物种在滇西北地区得以繁衍及扩散的原因之一。
英文摘要:
      During January (winter), April﹣May (spring) and October﹣November (autumn) in 2011, scan sampling and focal sampling methods were used to study the non-breeding season behaviors of the Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) in Eryuan Xihu wetland (26°00′﹣26°01′N, 100°02′﹣100°03′E) at the elevation of 1 970 m asl, Dali, Yunnan Province (Fig. 1). Using instantaneous scanning method, we observed the behaviors for 35 entire days in winter, spring and autumn with the help of binoculars and stopwatches, for details of our observation, see Fig. 2. Seven types of behaviors were defined as eating, searching, resting, grooming, alert, locomotion and others. To calculate the diurnal rhythm, we combined eating and searching as foraging in observation of scan sampling due to difficulties in instant discrimination (Fig. 3). Foraging was the dominating behavior throughout non-breeding seasons, with its peaks occurred at dawn and dusk, and low ebbs found at 14:30 in autumn (56.56%), 12:30 in winter (55.61%) and 11:00 in spring (55.80%). Resting peaked at 12:30 (26.79%) in autumn, yet increased throughout the daytimes in winter, and a low ebb occurred at 13:30 (14.64%) in spring. The time budgets of primary behaviors were calculated using focal sampling (Fig. 4), and showed significant differences among seasons (Table 1). Eating was observed for the highest frequent in autumn (72.54%) that followed by spring (56.78%) and winter (44.59%). Conversely, searching was the highest in winter (19.87%), followed by spring (9.36%) and autumn (3.03%). During winter, the Purple Swamphens in Xihu wetland invested more time on searching and less on eating than previous studies in respond to low temperature and shortage of food (Table 2). In spring, which before the breeding season, grooming was the highest (15.84%), then reduced in autumn (11.10%). Alert and locomotion were fluctuated due to the agricultural activities of local people. Our results indicated that, in order to adapt the seasonal changes of weather and food conditions, the behavioral strategies of the Purple Swamphen were variable in different seasons and locations, which allowed the expansion of this species to the highlands in North-west Yunnan Province.
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