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叶苗,樊天骐,陈炼,陈燏,朱善良,吴军,陈干,徐海根,刘燕.2017.两种福寿螺与中国圆田螺齿舌的形态学特征比较.动物学杂志,52(1):97-107.
两种福寿螺与中国圆田螺齿舌的形态学特征比较
Comparative Study on Morphology of Radula of Pomacea canaliculata, P. maculata and Cipangopaludina chinensis
投稿时间:2016-05-03  修订日期:2016-12-23
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201701011
中文关键词:  福寿螺Pomacea canaliculata  福寿螺P. maculata  中国圆田螺  齿舌  形态
英文关键词:Pomacea canaliculata  P. maculata  Cipangopaludina chinensis  Radula  Morphology
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31100274),江苏省自然科学基金项目(No. BK20131087),江苏省高校自然科学基金项目(No. 15KJB180004);
作者单位E-mail
叶苗 南京师范大学生命科学学院 15971202188@163.com 
樊天骐 南京师范大学生命科学学院  
陈炼 江苏第二师范学院生命科学与化学化工学院 chenlian_2004@163.com 
陈燏 江苏第二师范学院生命科学与化学化工学院  
朱善良 江苏第二师范学院生命科学与化学化工学院  
吴军 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所  
陈干 江苏第二师范学院生命科学与化学化工学院  
徐海根 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所  
刘燕 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所  
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中文摘要:
      齿舌作为软体动物独特的摄食器官,是软体动物门重要的分类特征。利用扫描电镜对入侵物种福寿螺Pomacea canaliculata、P. maculata和本地物种中国圆田螺(Cipangopaludina chinensis)的齿舌形态进行了比较观察。两种福寿螺和中国圆田螺齿式均为2?1?1?1?2。两种福寿螺齿舌的差异主要体现在中央齿的第一突起,P. canaliculata中央齿第一突起宽而短,不如P. maculata锋利。P. canaliculata与P. maculata第一突起长与中央齿宽以及第一突起宽与中央齿宽的比值均具有显著差异。两种福寿螺与中国圆田螺齿舌的中央齿、侧齿、缘齿,不论是从形态还是数量上都明显不同。两种福寿螺中央齿第一突起大而尖,呈倒三角形,两侧对称排列3个小齿;中国圆田螺的中央齿第一突起短而宽,呈方形,两侧对称排列4个小齿。两种福寿螺的侧齿大突起内侧有1个小而尖的小齿,大突起外侧另有2个小齿;中国圆田螺侧齿上缘中间大突起外侧有3个小齿,呈锯齿状。两种福寿螺的内缘齿和外缘齿相似,缘齿上缘的中间尖齿尖锐,旁边再形成一小齿;中国圆田螺内缘齿上缘的中间尖齿突出,外缘齿基部细长,上缘有小的尖齿8 ~ 10个,呈梳状。两种福寿螺与中国圆田螺的第一突起宽与中央齿宽之比、第一突起长与中央齿宽之比、第二突起宽与中央齿宽之比、第二突起长与中央齿宽之比均差异显著。食性不同可能是造成种间齿舌结构差异的原因之一。
英文摘要:
      Radula as a unique feeding organ is a useful morphological character to identify molluscs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for comparison of radula′s morphology of two invasive species Pomacea canaliculata, P. maculata and one native species Cipangopaludina chinensis. The radulae were extracted from four individuals of each apple snails and three individuals of C. chinensis. Surrounding tissue on the radula was removed manually and then placed in 10% sodium hydroxide for approximately 24 hours to remove any remaining tissue. The radula was then dried briefly and fixed on the copper plate and coated with gold. A series of parameters of the central teeth (Fig. 1) from the three species were measured by the software SmileView. The data were analyzed by Statistica 10.0 software package. Results suggested that the radular formula of the three species was 2?1?1?1?2, including one central tooth, one lateral tooth and other two marginal teeth on each side (Fig. 3a, e, i). The main discrepancy between the two apple snails was the central teeth. The first cusp of the central tooth of P. canaliculata was shorter and wider, not as sharp as that of P. maculata (Fig. 3b, f). There were significant differences in the ratio of the length of the first cusp/the width of the central tooth, and the width of the first cusp/the width of the central tooth between the two apple snails (P < 0.001, Table 2). The morphology of lateral tooth and marginal tooth for the two apple snails were similar (Table 1). However, the number and morphology of the central teeth, lateral teeth and marginal teeth were different among these three species (Table 1, Fig. 3). The first cusp of the central tooth was triangle, and three small cusps arranged symmetrically on both sides between the two apple snails. The species of C. chinensis had a short, broad, square cusp of the central tooth, bounded by four short, pointed denticles on each side. There were one small sharp cusp inside the big cusp of lateral teeth and two small cusps outside of that in the two apple snails. Three small serrated cusps were observed beside the big cusp of lateral teeth in C. chinensis. The inner and outer marginal teeth were similar in the two apple snails. The central cusp of the marginal tooth was sharp, with a small cusp near it. The central cusp of the inner marginal tooth was extruded in C. chinensis, and the outer marginal tooth had 8﹣10 small pectinate cusps. There were significant differences in the ratio of the width of the first cusp, the length of the first cusp, the length of the second cusp, as well as the width of the second cusp to the width of the central teeth between apple snails and C. chinensis (Table 2). The morphology of the radula is related to diet in order to adapt a wide variety of foods. The two apple snails were polyphagous, mainly feeding on vegetal (primarily young rice-crops) and animal matter, while C. chinensis ate microorganisms in the soil and humus phytoplankton in the water. Different feeding strategies could be one of the factors influencing interspecific differences in radula.
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