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张莹,高慧清,王志,徐嘉,姚健,王红,张志强.2017.中华蟾蜍体重及脏器大小对禁食和重喂食处理的响应.动物学杂志,52(2):294-303.
中华蟾蜍体重及脏器大小对禁食和重喂食处理的响应
Body Mass and Internal Organ Size Response to Fasting and Refeeding Treatments in Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans)
投稿时间:2016-05-16  修订日期:2017-02-17
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201702013
中文关键词:  中华蟾蜍  表型可塑性  内脏器官  禁食  重喂食
英文关键词:Asiatic Toads, Bufo gargarizans  Phenotypic plasticity  Internal organ  Fasting  Re-feeding
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(No. 31170379),安徽农业大学大学生科技创新创业训练计划“创新训练”项目(No. XJ2015170,XJ2015177)
作者单位E-mail
张莹 安徽农业大学动物科技学院 合肥 230036 645319948@qq.com 
高慧清 安徽农业大学动物科技学院 合肥 230036  
王志 安徽农业大学动物科技学院 合肥 230036  
徐嘉 安徽农业大学动物科技学院 合肥 230036  
姚健 安徽农业大学动物科技学院 合肥 230036  
王红 安徽农业大学动物科技学院 合肥 230036  
张志强 安徽农业大学动物科技学院 合肥 230036 zzq-003@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      两栖动物的体重和内脏器官大小可随环境条件而变化,具有表型可塑性,但实验例证较少,尤其缺乏与可变的食物可利用性有关的研究。本研究以捕自安徽省定远县县郊的雌、雄中华蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans)为研究对象,测定了自由取食组、禁食1周组、禁食2周组、重喂食1周组和重喂食2周组其体重、内脏器官湿重和干重的变化情况。1)中华蟾蜍的体重、胴体湿重和干重均无明显的性别(P > 0.05)和组间(P > 0.05)差异。2)雌蟾胃的湿重、干重和大肠湿重高于雄蟾(P < 0.05),其他内脏器官(小肠、胸腺、心、肝、肺、脂肪体、脾和肾)的湿重和干重均无性别差异(P > 0.05);雄蟾上述指标均无组间差异(P > 0.05);雌蟾的胃湿重和大肠湿重均无组间差异(P > 0.05),但胃干重自由取食组高于重喂食1周组(P < 0.05)。禁食2周组的小肠湿重下降,低于自由取食组、重喂食1周和2周组(P < 0.05)。3)禁食1周组的心湿重高于重喂食2周组(P < 0.05)。结果表明,中华蟾蜍在整体水平不受短期禁食和重喂食处理的影响,器官水平可能主要依赖适度饥饿而导致的心肌功能的提升和消化道的可塑性来应对变化的食物条件。
英文摘要:
      The body mass and internal organ size may change with different environmental conditions and display phenotypic plasticity in amphibians. However, empirical evidence testing the theory of phenotypic plasticity is still scarce, especially for specific experiments associated with ever-changing food availability. The changes of body mass, as well as wet and dry mass of internal organs from five groups (feeding, fasting for one week, fasting for two weeks, re-feeding for one week, and re-feeding for two weeks) were measured in Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) captured at Dingyuan County, Anhui Province. Two-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the sex and group differences for body mass. Two-way ANCOVA with body mass (or carcass dry mass) as a covariate was performed to analyze the sex and group differences for carcass wet mass and dry mass as well as the wet mass and dry mass of internal organs. All values are represented as the mean ± SE, and P <0.05 was considered as the level for statistical significance. The software SPSS (13.0, USA) was used for data analysis. The results were as follows: 1) Body mass, carcass wet mass and dry mass did not show significant sex (Table 1, all P > 0.05) and group (Table 1, all P > 0.05) differences. 2) Stomach wet mass (Fig. 1a, P < 0.05) and dry (Fig. 1b, P < 0.05) mass, as well as large intestine wet mass (Fig. 1c, P < 0.05) was heavier in females than in males. However, no sex difference was observed for the wet mass (Table 2, all P > 0.05) and dry (Table 3, all P > 0.05) mass of other internal organs (small intestine, thymus, heart, liver, lung, fat body, spleen and kidney). In males, no group difference was found for stomach wet mass (Fig. 1a, P < 0.05) and dry (Fig. 1b, P < 0.05) mass, as well as large intestine wet mass (Fig. 1c, P < 0.05). In females, stomach dry mass was heavier in feeding group than that in the group re-feeding for one week (Fig. 1b, P < 0.05), but no difference was observed for the wet mass of stomach (Fig. 1a, P < 0.05) or large intestine (Fig. 1c, P < 0.05). Small intestine wet mass was greatly declined in the group fasting for two weeks, lower than that of feeding group and re-feeding groups (Fig. 1d, P < 0.05). 3) Heart wet mass in the group fasting for one week was heavier than that in the group re-feeding for two weeks (Fig. 1e, P < 0.05). These results indicate that short-term fasting and re-feeding treatments had no obvious influence on Asiatic Toads at organismal levels; Asiatic Toads may mainly rely on enhanced heart functions induced by moderate starvation and the plasticity of digestive tract at organic levels to cope with changing food availability.
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