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刘小斌,韦伟,郑筱光,赵凯辉,何少文,周文良.2017.红腹锦鸡和红腹角雉活动节律——基于红外相机监测数据.动物学杂志,52(2):194-202.
红腹锦鸡和红腹角雉活动节律——基于红外相机监测数据
Activity Rhythms of Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and Satyr Tragopan (Tragopan temmminckii) Revealed by Infrared-triggered Cameras
投稿时间:2016-06-01  修订日期:2017-02-15
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201702002
中文关键词:  红外相机技术  红腹锦鸡  红腹角雉  活动节律  最适活动温度
英文关键词:Camera trap  Golden Pheasant, Chrysolophus pictus  Satyr Tragopan, Tragopan temmminckii  Activity rhythm  Optimal temperature
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
刘小斌 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区 1104103227@qq.com 
韦伟 中国科学院动物研究所西华师范大学生命科学学院  
郑筱光 中国科学院动物研究所  
赵凯辉 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区  
何少文 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区  
周文良 中国科学院动物研究所北京师范大学 zhouwenliang59@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      红腹锦鸡(Chrysolophus pictus)和红腹角雉(Tragopan temmminckii)均为国家Ⅱ级重点保护鸟类。作为两种同域分布的物种,其生态位重叠程度及竞争机制尚不明确。为了探究上述问题我们从2012年7月至2014年11月,在陕西省佛坪国家级自然保护区的9条样线上布设52台红外相机对这两种雉类的集群现象、日活动节律、季节性活动规律和最适活动温区进行研究。研究结果表明:(1)红腹锦鸡和红腹角雉每年8月下旬开始集群,到第二年的3、4月份集群结束,冬季集群最为频繁,而夏季则分散在其各自活动区单独活动。(2)二者皆为昼行性鸟类,活动高峰均出现在清晨和傍晚,但时间生态位存在明显分化:红腹锦鸡有两个活动高峰,分别为7:00时和17:00时;红腹角雉活动高峰为6:00时、9:00时和18:00时。(3)对两种雉类活动频次的季节性差异分析发现,春季活动最频繁,其后依次是秋季、夏季和冬季。(4)红腹锦鸡和红腹角雉选择在接近当月平均气温的时间段出来活动,红腹锦鸡活动的温度范围在﹣4℃到19℃,红腹角雉的活动温度范围是﹣1℃到22℃;但不同季节间略有差异,两种雉类在秋冬季大多选择在高于当月平均气温的时间段出来活动,而在夏季的活动温度则要略低于当月平均气温。观测数据证实了两种雉雉类有通过错峰活动减少生态位重叠导致的竞争的现象,但并未见到二者间有明显的适应性温区分化。
英文摘要:
      Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and Satyr Tragopan (Tragopan temmminckii) are two protected pheasant spieces (class Ⅱ) in China. As two sympatric species, the degree of their niche overlap and competition is still unclear. From July 2012 to November 2014, we set 52 infrared camera traps on 9 line transects (Fig. 1) to study the flock situation, daily activity pattern, seasonal activity rhythm and the optimal temperature selection of these two pheasants in Foping Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province. The results show: (1) The flock behaviour of the two pheasant occurred mainly in winter, starting from late August and ending in next March or April (Table 1). (2) The two pheasant had similar daily activity patterns with two peaks in the morning and evening, however, with obvious differentiation in time niche. Golden Pheasant had one activity peak at 7:00 in the morning and another peak at 17:00. Satyr Tragopan had two activity peaks at 6:00 and 9:00 in the morning, and one peak at 18:00 in the evening (Fig. 2). (3) By analyzing seasonal activity patterns of these two pheasant, we found that both of them were most active in spring (March to May), while followed by autumn (September to November), summer (June to August) and winter (December to February) (Fig. 3). (4) The favourite temperature of the activities of the two pheasant were close to the average temperature in this month, with the activity temperature range of Golden Pheasant from ﹣4℃ to 19℃, whereas Satyr Tragopan from ﹣1℃ to 22℃ (Fig. 4). Their activity temperatures were normally higher than the average temperature of the fall and winter, however, slightly lower than the average temperature in the summer. The divergence of their activity peak periods might help these two sympatric species to aviod niche overlap, but we did not see obvious temperature adaptive differentiation between these two pheasant.
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