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雷宇,韦国顺,刘强,刘文,李振吉,王汝斌,田昆.2017.贵州草海保护区钳嘴鹳种群动态.动物学杂志,52(2):203-209.
贵州草海保护区钳嘴鹳种群动态
Population Dynamics of Asian Openbill (Anastomus oscitans) in Caohai Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China
投稿时间:2016-07-19  修订日期:2017-02-21
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201702003
中文关键词:  钳嘴鹳  种群数量  夜栖地  草海保护区
英文关键词:Asian Openbill (Anastomus oscitans)  Population change  Night roosting site  Caohai Nature Reserve
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31460166),云南省科技计划项目(No. 2014FB149)
作者单位E-mail
雷宇 西南林业大学/国家高原湿地研究中心 447017752@qq.com 
韦国顺 贵州草海国家级自然保护区  
刘强 西南林业大学/国家高原湿地研究中心 cranelover@gmail.com 
刘文 贵州草海国家级自然保护区 威宁 553100  
李振吉 贵州草海国家级自然保护区 威宁 553100  
王汝斌 贵州草海国家级自然保护区 威宁 553100  
田昆 西南林业大学/国家高原湿地研究中心 昆明 650224  
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中文摘要:
      新分布种对当地生态系统的影响具有不确定性,掌握其种群动态对于制定相应的管理策略具有重要意义。钳嘴鹳(Anastomus oscitans)为我国新分布种,目前已扩散至云南、贵州、广西、四川等省(自治区),但对其种群数量及变化规律尚缺乏了解。2013年1月至2014年12月,采用夜栖地直接计数法对贵州省草海自然保护区钳嘴鹳的种群数量进行了监测。结果表明,1)钳嘴鹳主要在夏季出现,冬季数量较少,表现出明显的季节性差异(P < 0.001)。2)钳嘴鹳种群数量呈现逐年增加趋势,2013年的度夏期(5 ~ 10月份)平均数量为200.6只(SD = 94.6,n = 24),最高数量为427只;2014年的度夏期平均数量增长到356.0只(SD = 180.3,n = 25),最高数量为602只。3)钳嘴鹳为树上夜栖物种,调查中共发现5处夜栖地,其中位于保护区东南部的簸箕湾是主要夜栖地,在2013、2014年的统计中,该地钳嘴鹳分别占总数量的56.46%和63.53%。由于钳嘴鹳的游荡性较强,建议在其主要分布区开展同步监测,从而整体掌握其种群变化和分布情况。
英文摘要:
      The ecological impact of a species distributed in a new area would be uncertain to local ecosystem, so it is important to monitor its population dynamics for developing appropriate management strategies. The Asian Openbill (Anastomus oscitans), a newly recorded species in China, have spread to Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Sichuan provinces in recent years, however, its population status and trend were still lack of understanding. We conducted population census on the Asian Openbill in Caohai National Nature Reserve in Guizhou province (26°47′﹣26°52′N, 104°10′﹣104°20′E) during January 2013 to December 2014 by counting their night roosting sites (Fig. 1). Caihai wetland is a typical plateau lake wetland surrounded by shallow water mashes in southwestern China with an altitude of 2 171.7 m above sea level. We carried out the counting surveys one time per week at sunrise, with 5 groups responsible for the 5 night roosting sites. Our results showed that: 1) The Asian Openbill stayed in Caohai Nature Reserve mainly in summer and its population trend exhibited significant seasonal fluctuations (P < 0.001). 2) The population size of Asian openbills increased rapidly (Fig. 2), with the average of 200.6 ind (SD = 94.6, n = 24, Max 427 ind) in summer of 2013 and 356.1 ind (SD = 180.3, n = 25, Max 602 ind) in summer of 2014. 3) The Asian openbills in Caohai roosted in trees at night, as the 5 night roosting sites, the Bojiwan area, located in the southeast of Caohai, was the main place accounted for 56.46% and 63.53% of the whole population in 2013 and 2014, respectively (Table1). We suggest to establish a monitoring network consisted by the forestry departments and nature reserves to monitor the whole population of the Asian Openbill in China, including population size, distribution etc.
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