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施永海,徐嘉波,陆根海,张海明,严银龙,谢永德,税春.2017.养殖美洲鲥的生长特性.动物学杂志,52(4):638-645.
养殖美洲鲥的生长特性
Growth Characteristics of Cultured American Shad Alosa sapidissima
投稿时间:2016-08-20  修订日期:2017-06-17
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201704011
中文关键词:  美洲鲥  工厂化养殖  生长
英文关键词:American Shad, Alosa sapidissima  Intensive culture  Growth
基金项目:上海市科技兴农重点攻关项目[沪农科攻字(2014)第7-1-9号],上海市科学技术委员会重点攻关项目(No. 16391900400),上海长江口主要经济水生动物人工繁育工程技术研究中心项目(No. 13DZ2251800)
作者单位E-mail
施永海 上海市水产研究所、上海市水产技术推广站 yonghais@163.com 
徐嘉波 上海市水产研究所、上海市水产技术推广站  
陆根海 上海市水产研究所、上海市水产技术推广站  
张海明 上海市水产研究所、上海市水产技术推广站  
严银龙 上海市水产研究所、上海市水产技术推广站  
谢永德 上海市水产研究所、上海市水产技术推广站  
税春 上海市水产研究所、上海市水产技术推广站  
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中文摘要:
      通过对各周年生长阶段的养殖美洲鲥(Alosa sapidissima)体长、体重的测量与分析,研究了工厂化养殖美洲鲥的周年生长特性。养殖美洲鲥雌雄鱼的体长与体重关系均呈幂函数增长相关,其方程分别为,雌:W = 0.8062 × 10-5 L3.1113(n = 122,R2 = 0.997 5,P < 0.01);雄:W = 1.0047 × 10-5 L3.0574(n = 125,R2 = 0.997 5,P < 0.01),b均接近于3,呈等速生长;雌雄鱼生长均可分快速生长期(0+龄)、稳定生长期(1+龄)、生长衰老期(2+龄)三个时期,雌鱼生长快于雄鱼。拟合出von Bertallanffy生长方程,雌:Lt = 467.92(1﹣e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710)),Wt = 1637.72(1﹣e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710))3.1113;雄:Lt = 389.21(1﹣e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975)),Wt = 834.08(1﹣e-0.7374 (t + 0.7189))3.0574。雌雄鱼体重生长拐点分别位于1.517 8 a和1.224 7 a,属性成熟拐点,拐点前生长较快;拐点后,特别是性成熟后(2龄),2+龄鱼的生长速度明显降低;同时,2龄鱼繁殖季节过后会出现大量死亡。建议商业化工厂化养殖美洲鲥以2龄前上市为宜。
英文摘要:
      The American Shad (Alosa sapidissima) is an anadromous fish species with ecological importance on the east coast of North America. At present, it has a potential for aquaculture in China due to its commercial importance and high market value. To evaluate and determine growth characteristics of A. sapidissima, we measured the standard length and body weight of industrially cultured A. sapidissima (n = 217) (the basic culture conditions were shown in Table 1). The results showed: The relationships between body length and weight could be described by the power function: W = 0.8062 × 10-5L3.1113 (n = 122, R2 = 0.997 5, P < 0.01) for female (♀); W = 1.0047 × 10-5L3.0574 (n = 125, R2 = 0.997 5, P < 0.01) for male (♂) (Fig. 1), those values b all were closed to 3, this means an isometric growth; There were three stages in the growth of female and male (Table 2): Fast growth stage (0+ age), the specific growth rates of body length (SL) and body weight (SW) were 63.54%/a﹣165.49%/a and 512.37%/a﹣519.15%/a, respectively; Steady growth stage (1+ age), the SL and SW were 44.85%/a﹣48.05%/a and 110.15%/a﹣126.48%/a, respectively; Aging growth stage (2+ age), the SL and SW were 4.13%/a﹣10.29%/a and 32.16%/a﹣61.30%/a, respectively. The condition factors of 0-age and 2-age fish were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of 1-age and 3-age fish (Table 2). From the beginning of 2-age, the condition factors of female were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of male (Table 2). The females grew faster than the males. The growth of intensively cultured A. sapidissima was in a constant speed which can be described with von Bertalanffy equation: Lt = 467.92 (1﹣e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710)) (♀), Lt = 389.21 (1﹣e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975)) (♂) (Fig. 2); Wt = 1637.72 (1﹣e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710))3.1113 (♀), Wt = 834.08 (1﹣e-0.7374 (t + 0.7189))3.0574 (♂) (Fig. 3). According to the growth, the body length growth rate equations of female and male were dL/dt = 268.96 e-0.5748 (t +0.1710) (♀), and dL/dt = 287.00 e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975) (♂), respectively (Fig. 4); the body weight growth rate equations of female and male were dW/dt = 2928.86 e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710) (1﹣e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710))2.1113 (♀), and dW/dt = 1880.46e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975) (1﹣e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975))2.0574 (♂), respectively (Fig. 5); the acceleration growth rate equations for body weight of female and male were d2W/dt2 = 1683.51 e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710) (1﹣e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710))1.1113(3.1113 e-0.5748 (t + 0.1710)﹣1) (♀), and d2W/dt2 = 1386.65 e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975) (1﹣e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975))1.0574(3.0574 e-0.7374 (t + 0.1975)﹣1) (♂), respectively (Fig. 6). The inflection points on body weight growth curve of female and male were 1.517 8 a and 1.224 7 a, respectively (Fig. 6); They belonged to the inflection points of sexual maturity. Before inflection point, growth was faster; After inflection point, especially after sexual maturity (2 age), the growth rate of the 2+ age fish was decreased obviously; Meanwhile, after the breeding season, the 2-age fish die largely. Therefore, 2-age A. sapidissima should be sold in the commercialization industrial aquaculture.
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