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吴兵,初雯雯,吴洪潘,任松柏,贺雷,葛炎,布兰,初红军.2017.卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区水源地野放普氏野马的活动节律:基于红外相机监测数据.动物学杂志,52(4):545-554.
卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区水源地野放普氏野马的活动节律:基于红外相机监测数据
Activity Rhythms of Reintroducing Przewalski′s Horse (Equus przewalskii) at Watering Holes by Camera Traps in Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang
投稿时间:2016-09-27  修订日期:2017-06-19
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201704001
中文关键词:  普氏野马  红外线相机技术  卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区  活动节律
英文关键词:Przewalski′s Horse, Equus przewalskii  Infrared camera  Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve  Activity rhythms
基金项目:新疆自治区科技支撑项目(No. 201233131),卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站中央财政森林生态效益补偿基金和科技部科技基础性工作专项重大项目(No. 2013FY110300)
作者单位E-mail
吴兵 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院 乌鲁木齐 830046新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 新疆阿勒泰 836500 1072692052@qq.com 
初雯雯 新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 新疆阿勒泰 836500北京林业大学自然保护区学院 北京 100083  
吴洪潘 新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 新疆阿勒泰 836500新疆大学生命和科学技术学院 乌鲁木齐 830046  
任松柏 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院 乌鲁木齐 830046新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 阿勒泰 836500  
贺雷 新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 阿勒泰 836500  
葛炎 新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 阿勒泰 836500  
布兰 新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 阿勒泰 836500  
初红军 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院 乌鲁木齐 830046新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站 阿勒泰 836500 北京林业大学自然保护区学院 北京 100083  
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中文摘要:
      2014年4月至11月,在卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区的22个水源地安放66台红外相机,其中在8个野放普式野马(Equus przewalskii)利用的水源地放置了16台红外相机,对野放普氏野马在水源地的活动节律和时间分配进行了研究。16台相机累计工作1 068 d,获得野放普氏野马有效照片 2 051张。研究发现,野放普氏野马在水源地不同时段的有效照片数量符合正态分布,且季节间存在极显著差异。野放普氏野马在水源地不同时段的有效照片数量,春季远低于夏季和秋季(P< 0.05),而夏季与秋季差异不显著(P> 0.05)。野放普氏野马饮水频次春季极显著低于夏季和秋季(P< 0.01),夏季与秋季差异不显著(P> 0.05)。普氏野马在水源地具有稳定的日活动节律,时间分配上呈典型的钟形,13:00 ~ 17:00时达到高峰,20:00 ~ 次日5:00时快速下降,3:00 ~ 6:00时是一天中的低谷,在5:00 ~ 13:00时快速上升。不同月份野放普氏野马的日活动差异指数α(t = 8.364,df = 7,P< 0.01)和昼行性指数β(t = 19.519,df = 7,P< 0.01)均存在极显著差异,且β值为0.66 > 0.54,表明野放普氏野马活动以昼间为主。季节间活动差异指数存在极显著差异(单样本K-S检验,t = 7.851,df = 23,P< 0.01)。独立多样本Kruskal-Wallis检验季节性活动强度指数γ值差异不显著(c2 = 0.162,df = 2,P> 0.05)。通过在卡山保护区固定水源地的实时监测,初步明晰了野放普氏野马在水源地附近的活动节律及其季节性水源地利用,从而为野放普氏野马的生态学研究及保护措施的制定提供科学依据。
英文摘要:
      Sixty six infrared cameras were placed in 22 water sources from April to November 2014 to monitor the activity rhythms and time budgets of reintroducing Equus przewalskii in the Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Natur Reserve (MKUNR). Of 16 cameras that were placed in 8 water sources used frequently by the horses(Fig. 1) obtained obtain 2 051 independent photos on the reintroduced horse during 1 068 days. By analyzing those photos we found out the number of effective photos capturing the horses in the water source area was following the normal distribution. The difference of daily activity α index (Fig. 2) and diurnal β index (Fig. 3) of the horses showed significant difference between months (α index, t = 8.364, df = 7, P < 0.01. β index, t = 19.519, df = 7, P < 0.01), and the β index was 0.66 > 0.54, which indicated that reintroducing horseswas dominated in activity by daytime. Significant difference was detected in the seasonal activity index (single sample K-S test, t = 7.851, df = 23, P < 0.01) for the horse. However, no significant difference was found in the seasonal activity intensity index (Fig. 4) (c2 = 0.162, df = 2, P> 0.05) by the independent multi sample Kruskal-Wallis test. The results of multiple comparisons showed that the number of effective photosynthetic rate on the reintroducing horse in spring was significantly lower than that in summer and autumn (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between summer and autumn (P > 0.05). The reintroducinghorses were found in the water source at any time of day with a significantly variation between the groups sizes in the day time and night time (P< 0.05, T test), even in different hours. The water demands increased as the temperature increase and peaked around noontime (Fig. 5). The numbers of valid photo every day at different hours met the normal distribution for each season, and the horses at the water source showed a stable daily activity rhythm with a typical bell-shaped time allocation. In summer, the horses drank water at (25.29 ± 2.9) times/d and they took water is far less (13.88 ± 1.8) times/day than they did in spring (P < 0.01) by multiple comparison test. No any significant difference in the frequency of drank water between summer and autumn (P > 0.05). The number of horse drinking peaked from 13:00 to 17:00, 20:00﹣5:00 when the rapid decline, and 3:00﹣4:00 to the lowest, in the 5:00﹣13:00 when the rapid rise (Fig. 6). This study was firstly got the water use data in detail for the reintroducing horses by the real-time monitoring at the fixed water source in the MKUNR.
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