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余建平,钱海源,陈小南,李晟,申小莉.2017.基于红外相机技术的白鹇日活动节律研究.动物学杂志,52(6):937-944.
基于红外相机技术的白鹇日活动节律研究
Daily Activity Pattern of Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) Using Camera-traps
投稿时间:2017-02-13  修订日期:2017-11-02
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201706002
中文关键词:  白鹇  日活动节律  性比  相对活动强度指数  核密度估计  古田山国家级自然保护区
英文关键词:Silver Pheasant, Lophura nycthemera  Daily activity pattern  Sex ratio  Relative activity index  Kernel density estimation  Gutianshan National Nature Reserve
基金项目:科技部“国家标本资源共享平台建设”项目子课题(No. 2005DKA21400)
作者单位E-mail
余建平 古田山国家级自然保护区管理局 浙江开化 324300 gtsglj@126.com 
钱海源 古田山国家级自然保护区管理局 浙江开化 324300 gtsqhy@126.com 
陈小南 古田山国家级自然保护区管理局 浙江开化 324300 kkkuboy21241@163.com 
李晟 北京大学生命科学学院 北京 100871 shengli@pku.edu.cn 
申小莉 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室 北京 100093 xlshen@ibcas.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      2014年5月至2016年4月,利用红外相机技术,系统调查和分析了浙江古田山国家级自然保护区内白鹇(Lophura nycthemera)的性比、集群方式和日活动节律。调查期间共获得244个有效位点的数据,累计58 890个工作日,收集到33 276份白鹇的照片和视频,有效探测5 687次,统计出雄性成体(含亚成体)3 946只次,雌性4 179只次,雌雄性比为1.06︰1。记录到群体大小从2至12只不等,群的组成方式多样。日活动节律分析的结果显示,白鹇的日活动时间段为5:00 ~ 18:00时,于6:00时、11:00时和16:00时有3个活动高峰,其间于10:00时和14:00时出现两个活动的低谷。雌雄个体的日活动节律基本一致,但雄性个体相比雌性清晨的活动高峰延长1 h(雌性6:00 ~ 8:00时,雄性6:00 ~ 9:00时),而午后的静息低谷推后1 h(雌性14:00时,雄性15:00时)。日活动节律密度函数分析结果显示,白鹇的日活动节律存在季节性变化。白鹇在春季和冬季存在早晚两个明显的活动高峰,而夏季和秋季在6:00 ~ 18:00时都较为活跃。同时,相比其他季节,白鹇在冬季早晨开始活动的时间推迟,傍晚结束活动的时间提前。不同季节的比较表明,白鹇在冬季和春、夏季的日活动节律重叠程度最低。白鹇日活动节律在低海拔带(200 ~ 700 m)和高海拔带(700 ~ 1 200 m)上存在差异,低海拔带个体在夏季和冬季的傍晚比高海拔带个体活跃。本研究结果为保护区内白鹇的保护管理提供了基础的科学依据。
英文摘要:
      We examined social structure and daily activity pattern of Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and its seasonal variations based on the camera-trapping data collected from May 2014 to April 2016 in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province. An extensive sampling effort of 58 890 camera days across 244 sample sites was achieved, resulting in 5 687 independent detections with 33 276 pictures and videos of Silver Pheasant. We identified 3 946 males and 4 179 females and the sex ratio was (F︰M = 1.06︰1). Group size varied from 2﹣12 individuals. Silver pheasants were diurnal and active from 5 am to 6 pm (Fig. 1) with three activity peaks at 6 am, 11 am and 4 pm, respectively, and least activity at 10 am and 2 pm. Both sexes showed similar daily activity pattern except that males had a longer active duration in the morning (females: 6﹣8 am; males: 6﹣9 am), while the least active time occurred one hour later for males (females: at 2 pm; males: at 3 pm). Kernel density estimation showed that the daily activity patterns of Silver Pheasant varied among seasons (Fig. 2), with two apparent activity peaks in the morning and at dusk during spring and winter, however, activity peaks were less obvious during summer and autumn. In winter, the starting time of the activity postponed, and the ending time of the activity shift earlier in a day compared to other seasons. The daily activity patterns of Silver Pheasant between winter and spring or summer had lowest temporal overlap. Individuals at higher elevation (700﹣1 200 m) were less active at dusk compared to those at lower elevation (200﹣700 m) during summer and winter (Fig. 3). This study provided basic information for the management of the species in the reserve.
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