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赵若男,张黎悦,吴鹏飞,平骏,金建钰,张永普.2017.多疣壁虎胚胎发育分期的形态学特征.动物学杂志,52(6):987-995.
多疣壁虎胚胎发育分期的形态学特征
The Morphological Characteristics of Embryos at Different Developmental Stages in the Japanese Gecko, Gekko japonicus
投稿时间:2017-03-07  修订日期:2017-11-05
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201706008
中文关键词:  多疣壁虎  胚胎发育  形态发生
英文关键词:Gekko japonicus  Embryonic development  Morphogenesis
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31170376),浙江省大学生科技创新项目(No. 2016R426028),温州大学研究生创新基金项目(No. 41)
作者单位E-mail
赵若男 温州大学生命与环境科学学院 zrn669088@163.com 
张黎悦 浙江大学医学院 zhangliyue88@126.com 
吴鹏飞 温州大学生命与环境科学学院 252917235@qq.com 
平骏 温州大学生命与环境科学学院 420039340@qq.com 
金建钰 温州大学教师教育学院 jjy@wzu.edu.cn 
张永普 温州大学生命与环境科学学院 zhangypu@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      脊椎动物发育生物学的研究通常依赖于数量有限的模式生物的形态变化,胚胎发育分期表的建立为物种胚胎发育的一系列过程确立了一个统一的标准,成为研究形态演化的重要工具。本研究对多疣壁虎(Gekko japonicus)28℃孵化条件下的胚胎发育过程进行显微观察,并记录了整个胚胎发育历程。基于多疣壁虎胚胎发育过程中头部、咽、四肢等形态变化及皮肤色素沉积和被鳞的情况,将多疣壁虎胚胎发育分为42个时期。刚排出体外的受精卵,其胚胎发育一般已经发生至28期,该期胚胎头部和躯干分化明显,眼泡、咽弓、心和体节可见;29期前、后肢芽均可见;30期肢芽延长并开始出现分区,31期可见明显肢身,32期四肢均出现肢柱和肢杆的分区;33期咽裂消失,指和趾开始显现;35期指和趾间带退化,指和趾完全形成;36期出现爪;37期爪完全形成;38期皮肤色素沉积明显;39期指、趾底部膨大,形成单行攀瓣;40期身体背部和四肢色素沉积且被鳞明显;41期腹部出现色素沉积且被覆鳞片。42期鼻孔开放,体背整体呈灰棕色。对多疣壁虎卵产出后胚胎28 ~ 42期发育期形态学变化进行了详细描述,旨在为蜥蜴类胚胎发育研究提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Vertebrate developmental biologists typically rely on a limited number of model organisms to understand the evolutionary bases of morphological changes. Embryonic staging series are important tools in the study of morphological evolution as they establish a common standard for future studies of embryonic development. In this study, we observed and recorded the processes of embryonic development for the Japanese Gecko (Gekko japonicus) from oviposition to hatching. We incubated all eggs at 28℃, and clarified staging series based on external morphology of the embryos, including the head, pharyngeal arch, limb, digits and features of the appearance of scalation and pigmentation, which would provide some references to the research on embryonic development of egg-laying reptiles. For G. japonicus, eggs were laid when they developed to stage 28 within the female′s body and hatched at stage 42. The duration of each developmental stage varied from two to nine days (Fig. 1). A series of developmental stages of embryos was shown (Fig. 2). Somitogenesis was also well underway, with 30﹣33 pairs of somites evident at the time of laying. At stage 28, optic vesicle, pharyngeal arches and otic placode were visible, and the heart was visible as a single, curved endocardial tube protruding from the thoracic cavity. Forelimb buds were present as small protuberances, whereas the hindlimb buds were not yet visible by the second day after oviposition (Fig. 2a). Forelimb and hindlimb buds were observed as distinct protuberances at stage 29 (Fig. 2b). Then the limb buds were plate-like at stage 30 and the paddle-like autopodium could be seen at stage 31 (Fig. 2c, d). After two weeks of incubation, the forelimbs and hindlimbs were divided into three distinctive segments: stylopodium, zeugopodium, and autopodium at stage 32 (Fig. 2e). At stage 34, condensations of all five digits were visible in the autopodium of both forelimbs and hindlimbs (Fig. 2g). The interdigital webbing was deeply incised, and digits 1 and 5 were noticeably shorter than digits 2, 3 and 4 at stage 35 (Fig. 2h). Claws were present on all digits at stage 37 (Fig. 2j). Skin pigment and scale development were observed from stage 37 to stage 42 (Fig. 2j﹣o). There were differences between different species in incubation periods and embryonic stages (Table 1). The data provided by the staging series can be used for future studies of evolution and development.
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