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陶红梅,杨卫诚,温清.2018.洞穴环境因子对动物群落结构的影响——以贵州松桃神女洞为例.动物学杂志,53(6):899-909.
洞穴环境因子对动物群落结构的影响——以贵州松桃神女洞为例
Effects of Cave Environmental Factors on the Structure of Animal Communities — Take Shennv Cave in Songtao of Guizhou Province as An Example
投稿时间:2017-07-27  修订日期:2018-06-29
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201803101
中文关键词:  动物群落  环境因子  相关性  重金属污染  神女洞
英文关键词:Animal community  Environmental factor  Relevance  Heavy metal pollution  Shennv Cave
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 30560024),贵州省科技基金项目(黔科合LH字LKS[2016]7207号,黔科合支撑[2017]2811号,黔科合重大专项字[2016]3022号),2017年贵州师范大学博士基金项目
作者单位E-mail
陶红梅 贵州师范大学 Thongmei4562@163.com 
杨卫诚 贵州师范大学 yangweicheng0908@sina.com 
温清 贵州师范大学  
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中文摘要:
      神女洞是位于贵州松桃县的一个典型喀斯特洞穴,由于洞口已有一部分被旅游开发,为了能较详细地记录该洞穴的动物资源状况,了解洞穴环境条件与洞内动物群落结构之间的关系,及部分环境因子对洞穴动物空间分布的影响,2016年7月,在贵州松桃神女洞进行了较为深入的调查,共采获动物标本645号,土壤样本9份(250 g/份),并对空气温湿度及CO、CO2、O2、H2S 4种气体的含量进行现场测定。动物标本经鉴定,隶属3门8纲13目24科37种。斑灶马(Diestrammena marmorata)为优势种,占整个类群的67.60%。用原子吸收法测定了洞穴土壤中重金属Pb、Cd的含量,原子荧光法测定Hg、As的含量,并对这4种重金属进行污染评估,结果显示,Hg污染严重,含量超出中国土壤背景值,综合污染指数远远超过重度污染等级线。结合多样性指数运用相关性分析方法分析该洞穴动物群落的结构特征,结果表明,该洞穴动物群落的均匀度指数J'和优势度指数C与空气中H2S含量呈现显著相关关系;最大多样性H'max与温度呈极显著负相关。用典型相关分析方法分析洞穴动物的空间分布状况与环境因子相关性。唇足纲(Chilopoda)、两栖纲(Amphibia)和哺乳纲(Mammalia)的动物在空间分布上差异较小,且与空气中CO2和土壤中铅的含量成正相关;蛛形纲(Arachnoidea)的分布与O2含量呈正相关;倍足纲(Diplopoda)喜生活在较潮湿的地方;腹足纲(Gastropoda)的分布与空气中H2S的量正相关。
英文摘要:
      Shennv Cave is a typical Karst cave and located in Songtao County in Guizhou Province. A part of it has been developed by the tourism. In order to record the animal resources in detail, we investigated on the animal community structure in the cave and took measurement on some environment factors in the mean time in July 2016. A total of 645 animal specimens and 9 soil samples (250 g/bag) were collected. The content of air temperature, humidity and content of gases CO, CO2, O2 and H2S were measured in the field. We identified the species and found out all the animal species belonging to 3 phyla, 8 classes, 13 orders, 24 families and 37 groups. Of them Diestrammena marmorata was the dominant species, and it is accounted for the entire group of 67.60%. We used the atomic absorption spectrometry to analyze content of heavy metals Pb and Cd, used and atomic fluorescence spectrometry method to determined the contents of Hg for the soil samples. The results showed that the pollution of Hg was more serious compared with the soil background value in China, and the comprehensive heavy metal pollution index was far more than the heavy pollution grade line. We analyzed the structure characteristics of the cave animal community by the method of correlation analysis with the diversity index. The homogeneity index J' and the dominance index C of the cave animal community had a significant correlation with the content of H2S in the air. The maximum diversity was significantly negatively correlated with the temperature. The correlation between the spatial distribution of the cave animals and the environmental factors was analyzed by canonical correlation analysis. The spatial distribution of Chilopoda, Amphibia, Mammalia had a little difference, and all were positively related to the content of CO2 in the air and the content of lead in the soil. The distribution of Arachnoidea was positively correlated with the content of O2. The distribution of Diplopoda was positively correlated with humidity, and the distribution of Gastropoda was positively related to the amount of H2S in the air.
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