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高杏,董彦,袁柱,孙静,蒋际宝,邱江平.2018.哀牢山、无量山与苍山蚯蚓物种调查及系统发育与扩散分析.动物学杂志,53(3):399-414.
哀牢山、无量山与苍山蚯蚓物种调查及系统发育与扩散分析
Species and Molecular Phylogeny of Earthworms from Mt. Ailao, Mt. Wuliang and Mt. Cang, Yunnan
投稿时间:2017-09-15  修订日期:2018-05-10
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201803009
中文关键词:  云岭余脉  蚯蚓  物种多样性  系统发育分析
英文关键词:Extension of Yunling Mountains  Earthworm  Biodiversity  Molecular phylogeny
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 41471204,No. 31272265)
作者单位E-mail
高杏 上海交通大学农业与生物学院 上海 200240农业部都市农业南方重点实验室 上海 200240国家林业局上海城市森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站 上海 200240 mia@sjtu.edu.cn 
董彦 上海交通大学农业与生物学院 上海 200240农业部都市农业南方重点实验室 上海 200240国家林业局上海城市森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站 上海 200240 dongyan_yaya@163.com 
袁柱 上海交通大学农业与生物学院 上海 200240农业部都市农业南方重点实验室 上海 200240国家林业局上海城市森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站 上海 200240 yuanzhu30725@gmail.com 
孙静 上海南京农业大学 南京 210095 sun_jing.2005@aliyun.com 
蒋际宝 上海交通大学农业与生物学院 上海 200240农业部都市农业南方重点实验室 上海 200240国家林业局上海城市森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站 上海 200240 jjb12342004@gmail.com 
邱江平 上海交通大学农业与生物学院 上海 200240农业部都市农业南方重点实验室 上海 200240 国家林业局上海城市森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站 上海 200240 jpq@sjtu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      哀牢山、无量山与苍山是云南省地理二级阶梯生物多样性研究的关键地区之一,但鲜有蚯蚓物种记录。为完善云南省蚯蚓多样性、系统发育与演化研究,本研究对哀牢山国家级自然保护区、无量山国家级自然保护区和苍山洱海国家级自然保护区展开蚯蚓物种野外调查、形态分类、分子系统发育与扩散分析。研究共获得蚯蚓物种3科8属27种,其中巨蚓科(Megascolecidae)21种,正蚓科(Lumbricidae)4种,链胃蚓科(Moniligastridae)2种,鉴定了3个新物种——无量山远盲蚓(Amynthas wuliangmontis sp. nov.)、景东远盲蚓(Amynthas jingdongensis sp. nov.)和湖畔远盲蚓(Amynthas lacustris sp. nov.)。我们提取并测定样本的线粒体COⅠ、COⅡ、12S rRNA、16S rRNA和ND1基因序列,该地区物种间上述5基因联合序列的平均遗传距离为19.6% ± 0.5%,种群阶元遗传距离范围为0 ~ 2.7%;其次,构建最大似然系统发育树和贝叶斯系统发育树,阐述了该地区蚯蚓物种的系统发育关系,再次验证了远盲蚓属与腔蚓属均不为单系群的观点;最后,依据祖先分布区域重建结果,并结合之前研究,推测该地区巨蚓科蚯蚓物种的主要扩散趋势为由南至北扩散——自哀劳山、无量山向苍山方向扩散。
英文摘要:
      Mt. Ailao, Mt. Wuliang and Mt. Cang are the key areas of biodiversity in Yunnan Province (Fig. 1), China. In order to reveal the taxonomy and phylogeny of earthworms from these areas, specimens were collected by digging and hand-sorting methods (Fan et al. 2012) in 2010, 2011 and 2016. Both morphological and phylogenetic methods were used to identify species. We analyzed both composition and p-distance based on either mitochondrial COⅠ, COⅡ, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, ND1 sequences or their combined genes. Phylogenetic trees and ancestral distribution area were also reconstructed with the combined genes. As results, a total of 3 families, 8 genera and 27 species of earthworm species were classified, including 21 species of Megascolecidae, 4 species of Lumbricidae, and 2 species of Moniligastridae (Table 1). Three new species were identified, and they were Amynthas wuliangmontis sp. nov., Amynthas jingdongensis sp. nov. and Amynthas lacustris sp. nov (Fig. 2). The mitochondrial COⅠ, COⅡ, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and ND1 genes were sequenced, and the average inter-species p-distance of combined sequences was determined to be 19.6% ± 0.5% (Table 2), while the average intra-species p-distance was 0﹣2.7% (Table 3). Both Maximum Likehood tree and Bayesian Inference (BI) tree showed the same phylogenetic relationship of these specimens (Fig. 3). We classified the BI tree into 7 clusters. Cluster 1 was constructed of all 4 Lumbricidae species. However, Clusters 2﹣7 were constructed of all Megascolecidae specimens. According to Cluster 7, it was verified that Amynthas and Metaphire were in a mixed group. Moreover, we suggested that the diffusion direction of Megascolecidae was from south to north according to the reconstruction of ancestral distribution area (Fig. 4), hence species may spread from Mt. Wuliang & Mt. Ailao to Mt. Cang. This is the first attempt for taxonomy and phylogeny analysis of earthworms in extension of Yunling Mountains. Our results show the biodiversity as well as the close phylogenetic relationship of earthworm species in this region, which will be valuable for further researching earthworms in southeast China.
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