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马天,张国钢,E. E. Syroechkovski,P. S. Tomkovich,陆军.2018.俄罗斯远东地区勺嘴鹬繁殖地夏季水鸟调查.动物学杂志,53(4):507-518.
俄罗斯远东地区勺嘴鹬繁殖地夏季水鸟调查
Investigation of the Summer Waterfowl in Breeding Areas of Spoon-billed Sandpiper in the Far East of Russia
投稿时间:2017-09-21  修订日期:2018-06-23
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201804002
中文关键词:  勺嘴鹬  繁殖地  迁徙  环志回收数据
英文关键词:Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Calidris pygmeus  Breeding site  Migration  Banding and recovery data
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No. 2016YFC1201601),国家林业局珍稀濒危物种野外救护与人工繁育项目
作者单位E-mail
马天 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 290172770@qq.com 
张国钢 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 zm7672@126.com 
E. E. Syroechkovski Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences ees_jr@yahoo.co.uk 
P. S. Tomkovich 莫斯科国立大学动物博物馆 pst@zmmu.msu.ru 
陆军 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 lujunmail@vip.sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      俄罗斯远东地区是全球鸟类重要的繁殖地之一,特别是楚科奇半岛的阿纳德尔地区是全球极危鸟种勺嘴鹬(Calidris pygmeus)已知的重要繁殖地。为了履行中俄候鸟及其栖息地保护双边协定,掌握俄罗斯远东的阿纳德尔地区夏季水鸟的资源状况,2017年6月25日至7月20日,中俄双方对阿纳德尔南部地区进行了夏季水鸟资源调查。调查区域主要包括阿纳德尔、从阿纳德尔至白令戈夫斯基的海域、白令戈夫斯基、梅内皮尔吉诺周边苔原区域以及附近海域四个部分。共记录35种水鸟,隶属于6目10科,其中14种有繁殖活动。分析中俄环志回收数据表明,在我国长江流域和东部沿海地区越冬的雁鸭类和鸻鹬类水鸟,夏季迁徙到俄罗斯的哈巴罗夫斯克、萨哈林岛、勘察加半岛、雅库特、楚科奇等远东地区繁殖。此外,勺嘴鹬的主要繁殖繁殖地梅内皮尔吉诺周边苔原地区存在着巢址被洪水淹没、卵和雏鸟遭天敌捕食等风险;在勺嘴鹬迁徙路线上的重要迁徙停歇地和越冬地的退化、环境污染和人为活动是导致勺嘴鹬种群数量下降的重要因素。研究结果表明,需要进一步加强中俄双方勺嘴鹬保护的合作与交流,共同保护鸟类的栖息地。
英文摘要:
      The Russian Far East is one of the most important breeding sites for birds in the world, and Anadyr on the Chukchi Peninsula is known as an important breeding site of the critically endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Calidris pygmeus). In order to carry out the Sino-Russia Bilateral Agreement on the Protection of Migratory Birds and Their Habitats, and to understand summer waterfowl community in Anadyr in the Russian Far East, we investigated the summer waterfowls in the southern part of Anadyr from June 25th to July 20th in 2017. The investigation covered four areas including Anadyr, seas from Anadyr to Beringovsky, Beringovsky, peripheral tundra area of Meinypilgyno and the adjacent seas (Fig. 1). With binoculars and monocular telescopes, the investigators carried out the investigation on land areas and water areas by belt transect method and line transect method. We recorded 35 waterfowl species belonging to 6 orders and 10 families, with 14 species as local breeders (see Table 1 with breeding activities and habitat). According to the banding and recovery data between China and Russia during 1976 to 2017 from the database of National Bird Banding Center, 11 species of waterfowls were recorded as migrants birds between China and Russia (Table 2), with their major breeding sites and stopover sites shown by the migration tendency chart drawn by ArcGIS, a geographic information system software (Fig. 2 for geese and ducks, Fig. 3 for waders and Fig. 4 for gulls and terns). Meanwhile, the reasons for the depopulation of Spoon-billed Sandpiper were analyzed based on the actual investigation of the breeding sites as well as relevant historic materials and literatures. Through the analysis of banding and recovery data, we suggest that (1) the Russian Far East area is closely related to the eastern coastal area and the Yangtze River Basin of China, such as the Poyang Lake and the Dongting Lake, as the East Asia – Australia bird migration route. Generally, Anseriformes birds and waders that overwinter in the eastern coastal area and the Yangtze River Basin of China will migrate to the Russia Far East areas, such as Khabarovsk, Sakhalin, Kamchatka Peninsula, Yakut, Chukchi, etc. for their breeding in summer. So the co-investigation and cooperation between China and Russia and the protection of bird habitats is very important. (2) There are two potential threats to the breeding population of Spoon-billed Sandpiper in Anadyr: [1] The flood formed by the melted ice and snow on the mountains in each spring flows into rivers, which leads to the rise of water level, generating risks of submerging the nesting ground of Spoon-billed Sandpiper in parts of their breeding sites; [2] Eggs and fledglings of many birds including Spoon-billed Sandpiper might be preyed on by natural enemies such as Corvus corax, Vulpes vulpes and Citellus dauricus. Meanwhile, the degradation of major stop-over and overwintering places along the migration route, environmental pollution and human activities are also important factors for the depopulation of Spoon-billed Sandpiper. The reclamation and degeneration of tidal flats in the eastern coastal area of China (e.g. the mudflats in Rudong County, Jiangsu Province) reduce the places for energy supplement and increase the risk for migration; the illegal hunting in Burma is the major reason for the reduction of overwintering population of Spoon-billed Sandpiper. Therefore, the study on the migration routes of Spoon-billed Sandpiper is one of the urgent topics today.
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