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罗东,李叶,时磊.2018.天山中部地区北山羊食性及其季节变化.动物学杂志,53(3):321-328.
天山中部地区北山羊食性及其季节变化
Seasonal Variation in Feeding Habits of the Asiatic Ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Central Tianshan Mountains
投稿时间:2017-09-29  修订日期:2018-04-21
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201803001
中文关键词:  食性分析  粪便显微组织分析  季节变化  北山羊
英文关键词:Feeding habits  Fecal microstructure analysis  Feasonal shift  Asiatic Ibex (Capra sibirica)
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(No. 201203041)
作者单位E-mail
罗东 新疆农业大学动物科学学院 254286728@qq.com 
李叶 新疆农业大学动物科学学院 1162603278@qq.com 
时磊 新疆农业大学动物科学学院 shileixj@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      本研究采用粪便显微组织分析法,调查了天山中部地区北山羊(Capra sibirica)的食物组成及季节变化。结果表明,在北山羊的粪便显微装片中共鉴定出14科37种(属)植物。禾本科为北山羊主要食物,夏季和冬季分别占食谱的54.30%和59.34%。莎草科、豆科、蔷薇科以及菊科也是北山羊较为重要的食物。其中高山早熟禾(Poa alpina)、嵩草属(Kobresia spp.)和针茅属(Stipa spp.)物种均为夏季和冬季采食较多的植物。卡方检验结果表明,北山羊的食物组成在夏季和冬季间有明显变化,蔷薇科和菊科在冬季食谱中所占的比例显著低于夏季(蔷薇科,Pearson χ2 = 13.737,df = 1,P < 0.01;菊科,Pearson χ2 =4.784,df = 1,P < 0.05),而对禾本科的采食比例冬季显著高于夏季(禾本科,Pearson χ2 = 4.319,df = 1,P < 0.05)。种属水平上北山羊夏季与冬季的采食食物种类的比例具有极显著差异(Pearson χ2 = 89.495,df = 36,P < 0.01)。上述研究结果表明,天山中部地区的北山羊属于泛食性物种,且食性有明显的季节变化。
英文摘要:
      The dietary composition and seasonal dietary shift of the Asiatic Ibex (Capra sibirica) in the central Tianshan Mountains were investigated using fecal micro-histological analysis. Total of 37 species (genus) of plants from 14 different families were identified in the fecal samples of the Asiatic Ibex (Table 1). Poaceae was found to be the main food source of the Ibex, accounting for 54.30% and 59.34% of its diet in the summer and winter, respectively. Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae were also important food items of the ibex. Within these groups, Poa alpine, Kobresia spp., and Stipa spp. were the most commonly foraged plants (Table 1). The result of Chi-square tests revealed that the foraging habits of the ibex in summer and winter were significantly different. The proportion of Rosaceae (Pearson χ2 = 13.737, df = 1, P < 0.01) and Asteraceae (Pearson χ2 = 4.784, df = 1, P < 0.05) consumed in winter was significantly lower than in summer, while the amount of Poaceae (Pearson χ2 = 4.319, df = 1, P < 0.05) consumed in winter was significantly higher than in summer. At the plant species level, there were significant differences in the proportions consumed in summer and winter (Pearson χ2 = 89.495, df = 36, P < 0.01) (Fig. 2). The results indicate that the Asiatic ibex of the central Tianshan Mountains exhibits a generalist feeding patterns with significant seasonal shift.
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