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孙喜娇,张明明,Hannah Larson,胡灿实,粟海军.2018.贵州草海越冬黑颈鹤飞出飞回夜栖地行为节律初步观察.动物学杂志,53(2):180-190.
贵州草海越冬黑颈鹤飞出飞回夜栖地行为节律初步观察
Field Observations on the Behavior of Wintering Black-necked Cranes (Grus nigricollis) at Roosting Sites in Caohai, Guizhou
投稿时间:2017-11-02  修订日期:2018-03-09
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201802003
中文关键词:  黑颈鹤  越冬期  夜栖地  行为节律  草海
英文关键词:Black-necked Crane, Grus nigricollis  Wintering period  Roosting site  Activity rhythm  Caohai
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31400353),贵州省重大科技专项(黔科合重大专项字[2016]3022-1号),贵州省教育厅自然科学研究项目(黔教合KY字[2015]354号),贵州省留学人员科技创新项目(黔人项目资助合同[2016]18号)及贵州省科技厅与贵州大学联合基金项目(黔科合LH字[2014]7682)
作者单位E-mail
孙喜娇 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心 1107617211@qq.com 
张明明 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心 zmm.2005@163.com 
Hannah Larson 美国威斯康星大学尼尔森环境研究所 hlarson5@wisc.edu 
胡灿实 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心 517250643@qq.com 
粟海军 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心 hjsu@gzu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      野生动物行为节律常常是其对环境变化的一种行为适应。黑颈鹤(Grus nigricollis)越冬期会利用固定夜栖地,形成每天早晨飞出觅食,傍晚飞回夜栖的固定行为模式。为探索这一固定行为模式在越冬不同时期的变化及其影响因素,利用瞬时扫描法对草海湿地全部7个固定夜栖地的黑颈鹤飞出和飞回夜栖地准确时间及飞出之前和飞回之后在夜栖地的行为节律进行了观察。并且保证越冬前期(11月9日至12月31日)、中期(1月1日至2月21)和后期(2月22日至3月31日)3个阶段的调查时间分别不低于15 d。结果表明,越冬不同时期黑颈鹤飞出夜栖地时间差异极显著(F = 23.38,P < 0.01),飞回夜栖地时间存在显著性差异(F = 3.51,P < 0.05)。整个越冬期,黑颈鹤飞出夜栖地时间在中期延后,而到后期则更为提前,越冬前期、中期和后期飞出夜栖地的平均时间分别为7:34时、7:40时和7:13时;而飞回夜栖地时间逐渐延后,平均时间由前期的17:12时,至中期的17:40时和后期的18:15时。黑颈鹤飞出夜栖地之前的行为在越冬前期、中期和后期差异极显著(F = 1 768.25,df = 12,P < 0.01),飞回夜栖地之后的行为在前期、中期和后期差异亦极显著(F = 793.98,df = 12,P < 0.01)。越冬前期、中期和后期,黑颈鹤飞出夜栖地之前的行为与飞回夜栖地之后的行为均差异极显著(前期F = 2 723.16,df = 6,P < 0.01;中期F = 1 979.48,df = 6,P < 0.01;后期F = 5 098.18,df = 6,P < 0.01)。黑颈鹤在飞出夜栖地前的80 min内,其行为以保养(34.32%)和休息(32.38%)为主;而飞回夜栖地后的90 min内,以觅食(43.04%)和休息(23.68%)为主。飞出时刻与日出时刻呈显著强相关(r = 0.832,n = 48,P < 0.01),飞回时刻与日落时刻呈弱相关(r = 0.353,n = 47,P < 0.01)。日出时间与黑颈鹤飞出夜栖地的时间的差值(Y1)受飞离时的空气湿度(W)影响,二者成反比,Y1 = 0.469﹣0.625W,P < 0.05。黑颈鹤飞回夜栖地时刻与日落时刻的差值(Y2)受当天平均温度(T)的影响较为显著,Y2 = 1.231﹣0.107T,P < 0.05,当天平均温度越高黑颈鹤飞回夜栖地时间越早,温度越低,黑颈鹤飞回夜栖地的时间越晚。研究结果对于进一步探讨黑颈鹤完整夜栖行为及其对干扰的适应性具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      Time budget and behavioral rhythm of animals can be regarded as a kind of behavioral adaptation to environmental conditions. The Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) use fixed roosting sites during overwintering periods and have a daily behavioral pattern of flying out from the roosting sites in the morning to forage and flying back in the evening to roost. To explore the time budget and factors influencing this behavior during different periods of winter, a field study by means of instantaneous scan sampling was conducted on the flight and behavior patterns of Black-necked Cranes at seven roosting sites at the Caohai wetland. The field observations were conducted in the whole winter, which divided into three periods: early winter (Nov. 9﹣Dec. 31), mid-winter (Jan. 1﹣Feb. 21) and late winter (Feb. 22﹣Mar. 31). Based on the known behavioral spectrum of Black-necked Cranes and previous observation results (Li et al. 2005), crane behavior at roosting sites before the morning departure and after the evening return was classified into 8 categories and 14 types (Table 1). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the time differences of the daily departure and return flights between three periods of winter. The results showed that both departure and return times were significantly different between the three periods. Compared with early winter, the departure time from roosting sites was delayed in middle winter and advanced in late winter (mean times: 7:34, 7:40, and 7:13 in the morning), while the return time to roosting sites became gradually later throughout the winter (from 17:12 to 18:15 in the late afternoon) (Fig. 2). A Chi-square R × C table test was used to compare patterns of the departure and return times from roosting sites as well as the behavioral differences before departure and after return between different periods of winter. There was a significant difference of the behavior before departure among early, mid, and late winter (F = 1 768.25, df = 12, P < 0.01), so as to the behavioral differences after their return to the roosting sites (F = 793.98, df = 12, P < 0.01). The behavior of the cranes before the morning departure and after the evening return was significantly different in the early winter period (F = 2 723.16, df = 6, P < 0.01), mid-winter period (F = 1 979.48, df = 6, P < 0.01), and late winter period (F = 5 098.18, df = 6, P < 0.01) (Table 2). The occurrence frequency of various types of behavior in the crane roosting population within 80 min before morning departure and 90 min after evening return were recorded. For the 80-minute period before the morning departure from the roosting site, maintaining (34.32%) and resting (32.38%) were the dominant behaviors, while foraging (43.04%) and resting (23.68%) were the dominant behaviors within the 90-minute period after the evening return (Fig. 3). The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the flight times and the sunrise and sunset times. The departure times were significantly related with sunrise time (r = 0.832, n = 48, P < 0.01), while the return times were weakly correlated with sunset time (r = 0.353, n = 47, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test the effects of temperature and humidity on the departure and return time changes. The difference between the sunrise time and the crane departure time (Y1) was affected by humidity at the time of the departure (W) (Y1 = 0.469﹣0.625W, P < 0.05). The difference between the sunrise time and the crane departure time (Y1) was inversely proportional to humidity at the time of departure (W). The difference between the sunset time and the crane return time (Y2) was affected by mean daily temperature (T) (Y2 = 1.231﹣0.107T, P < 0.05). Our results can be meaningful and useful for further exploring the roosting behavior of Black-necked Cranes as well as their behavioral adaptations to human disturbances.
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