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韩红金,乔佳伦,蔡永华,程建国,付文龙,孟秀祥.2018.四川马尔康圈养林麝的刻板行为.动物学杂志,53(4):539-544.
四川马尔康圈养林麝的刻板行为
Stereotypic Behavior of Captive Forest Musk Deer (Moschus berezovskii)
投稿时间:2017-11-22  修订日期:2018-06-25
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201804005
中文关键词:  圈养  林麝  刻板行为  性别  圈群结构
英文关键词:In captive  Forest Musk Deer (Moschus berezovskii)  Stereotypic behavior  Gender  Social structure
基金项目:中国人民大学科学研究基金项目/中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(No. 15XNLQ02),国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31672300),中国人民大学2018年度“中央高校建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项资金”项目
作者单位E-mail
韩红金 中国人民大学环境学院 北京 100872 hjhanruc@163.com 
乔佳伦 中国人民大学环境学院 北京 100872 191736817@qq.com 
蔡永华 四川养麝研究所 都江堰 611830 luoyefeihua@163.com 
程建国 四川养麝研究所 都江堰 611830 2780590652@qq.com 
付文龙 四川养麝研究所 都江堰 611830 286749350@qq.com 
孟秀祥 中国人民大学环境学院 北京 100872 meng2014@ruc.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      在圈养环境下,迁地保育野生动物易发育刻板行为,刻板行为的发育可直接影响圈养野生动物的繁殖和存活,从而影响迁地保育。2016年5月1日至7月31日间,采用焦点取样及所有事件记录法对四川马尔康林麝繁育场的75头圈养林麝(Moschus berezovskii)进行了刻板行为取样,分析了性别、年龄、圈区环境、圈群结构等因素对其刻板行为的效应。结果表明,四川马尔康麝场的圈养林麝在单位取样时间(10 min)内展现的刻板行为持续时间占比为20.53% ± 2.43%(n = 75);雌麝刻板行为持续时间占比(18.14% ± 3.26%,n = 46)略低于雄麝(20.89% ± 3.98%,n = 25);随圈养年限(本研究中的圈养林麝“年龄”即是“被圈养年数”)增加,林麝展现刻板行为的持续时间显著增加(P < 0.05);圈区环境设施对刻板行为存在显著效应(P < 0.05),裸地基底圈舍中林麝的刻板行为持续时间占比最高(33.11% ± 6.16%,n = 24);圈群结构对林麝刻板行为持续时间的影响不显著(P > 0.05),混合圈群的刻板行为持续时间(19.31% ± 3.18%,n = 53)最小;圈群密度对刻板行为持续时间的效应不显著(P > 0.05)。增加圈养环境的植被覆盖,进行混合圈养,可有效降低圈养林麝的刻板行为强度,并可提升林麝迁地保育的有效性。
英文摘要:
      Captive animals are prone to stereotyped behaviors, which affect the reproduction, survival, and even ex situ conservation efficiency directly. This study was conducted from May to July in 2016, at Maerkang Musk Deer Farm (MMDF), Sichuan Province. The stereotyped behaviors and the occurrence of 75 Forest Musk Deer (Moschus berezovskii) were recorded by focal sampling method, and the effects of sexes, age, density and environment heterogeneity on stereotyped behaviors were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis H Test. The results indicated that the duration of stereotyped behaviors of captive Forest Musk Deer was 20.53% ± 2.43% (n = 75) in 10 minute sampling duration, and that in females (18.14% ± 3.26%, n = 46) was lower than that in males (20.89% ± 3.98%, n = 25). Age had significant effects on the duration of stereotyped behaviors (P < 0.05), the duration of stereotyped behaviors in subadult (13.46% ± 3.17%, n = 34) was the lowest. Environmental heterogeneity also had significant effects on the duration of stereotyped behaviors (P < 0.05). Musk deer kept in bare land spent most time in the stereotyped behaviors (33.11% ± 6.16%, n = 24). No any significant effects were found in social structure and density on duration of stereotyped behaviors although muskdeer in mixed group showed lowest duration in stereotyped behaviors (19.31% ± 3.18%, n = 53). Increasing the captivity vegetation cover and raising them in mixed groups can effectively reduce the stereotyped behaviors of captive forest musk deer.
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