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金志民,田新民,王兴波,杨春文,刘铸,李殿伟.2018.柴河林区小型啮齿动物群落格局变化.动物学杂志,53(5):682-692.
柴河林区小型啮齿动物群落格局变化
Community Pattern Changes of Small Rodents in the Chaihe Forest Area
投稿时间:2017-12-16  修订日期:2018-08-13
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201805002
中文关键词:  柴河林区  啮齿动物  群落格局  生境变化
英文关键词:Chaihe forest area  Rodents  Community pattern  Habitat change
基金项目:黑龙江省教育厅项目(No. 1351MSYYB003),牡丹江师范学院优秀青年骨干教师培养计划项目(No. MQP201405)
作者单位E-mail
金志民 牡丹江师范学院 黑龙江 牡丹江 157011 swxjzm@126.com 
田新民 牡丹江师范学院 黑龙江 牡丹江 157011 swxtxm@126.com 
王兴波 黑龙江省柴河重点国有林管理局 柴河 157131  
杨春文 牡丹江师范学院 黑龙江 牡丹江 157011 swxyw1@126.com 
刘铸 牡丹江师范学院 黑龙江 牡丹江 157011 swxlz0@126.com 
李殿伟 牡丹江师范学院 黑龙江 牡丹江 157011 swxldw@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为阐明柴河林区小型啮齿动物群落结构与格局的形成原因,掌握林区啮齿动物群落动态及发展趋势。于2012至2015年在柴河林区的新房子、大青沟和二道河子地区,对针阔混交林、阔叶林、草甸、沿河林和农田5种生境类型,采用铗日法对小型啮齿动物进行了调查。结果表明,棕背?(Clethrionomys rufocanus)和大林姬鼠(Apodemus peninsulae)为柴河林区小型啮齿动物的优势物种,针阔混交林为棕背?最适生境,阔叶林为大林姬鼠最适生境;黑线姬鼠(A. agrarius)和大仓鼠(Cricetulus triton)为农田优势物种,东方田鼠(Microtus fortis)仅在草甸中发现。随生境垂直分布区海拔高度的降低,总捕获率逐渐减低,其中棕背?的种群变化起主要作用;大林姬鼠的捕获率逐渐增加,其对农业经济的干扰适应性更强;褐家鼠(Rattus norvegicus)的分布规律受居民点分布比例影响;红背?(Clethrionomys rutilus)主要分布于海拔相对较高的针阔混交林。通过与孙儒泳等20世纪60年代在此地区的研究结果的比较,最后认为近几十年原始森林的破坏,伴生的次生林和人工林,致柴河林区的针阔混交林向阔叶林的过渡失去先前的典型特征。并发现小型啮齿动物的群落格局变化,虽呈现出自然条件的垂直变化和农业活动影响的规律,但同时存在生境变化的适应性改变,也表现出各地区的区域生境特征对取样点微生境啮齿动物分布的巨大影响。
英文摘要:
      The Chaihe forest area is located in the northern part of the Zhang Guang Cai ridge of the Changbai Mountain branch. The forest harvesting and plantation in the last few decades have changed the typical transitional characteristics of the broad-leaved forest belt in the past. The change of habitat structure will lead to the change of rodent community pattern. In order to elucidate the formation of the structure and pattern of the small rodent community, grasp the dynamics of community and the trend of development in Chaihe forest area, we conducted a survey of small rodents by trap day methods in 5 habitats of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, meadow, the along river forest and farmland of Xinfangzi, Daqinggou and Erdaohezi region between 2012 to 2015 (Table 1 and Table 2). According to the 20 m × 5 m specifications, line spacing of 20 m, 5 m between traps at the same row, we trapped the rodents for 24 hours using the seed of gourd. We trapped rodents once a year at each sample plot. Totally, we got 6 244 trap days during the 4 years and captured 1 025 individuals of todents. The results showed that Clethrionomys rufocanus and Apodemus peninsulae were the dominant species of coniferous (Table 3), among them, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest for C. rufocanus optimal habitat, broad-leaved forest was the most suitable habitat of A. peninsulae. A. agrarius and Cricetulus triton were dominant species in farmland, Microtus fortis was found only in meadows (Table 4). The total capture rate decreases with altitude decreasing, the population change of Clethrionomys rufocanus played a major role. A. peninsulae capture rate increases gradually, had a stronger adaptability to the disturbance of agricultural economy. The distribution of Rattus norvegicus was inluenced by the local residential density, Clethrionomys rutilus was mainly distributed in a relatively high altitude mixed forest of coniferous and broad-leaved trees (Table 5 and Table 6). Coniferous forest area of Chaihe forest area appeared the transition from coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest to broad-leaved forest, lost its typical features of previous, in recent decades compairing our results with the report of Sun Ruyong (1962b). The changes in the community pattern of small rodents were also found, although there were vertical changes in natural conditions and the rules of agricultural activity, an adaptive change in habitat change at the same time, it also showed the great impact of regional habitat characteristics on the distribution of microhabitat rodents at sampling points (Table 7 and Fig. 1).
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