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李雪健,郭久波,牛诚祎,黄金清,曹坤,何赛,刘海波,赵亚辉.2018.北京市潮白河流域鱼类物种组成的历史演变和多样性现状.动物学杂志,53(3):375-388.
北京市潮白河流域鱼类物种组成的历史演变和多样性现状
Historical Change and Current Status of Fish Species Diversity of the Chaobaihe River Basin, Beijing
投稿时间:2017-12-29  修订日期:2018-05-17
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201803007
中文关键词:  鱼类多样性  潮白河流域  空间变化  南水北调  资源保护
英文关键词:Fish diversity  Chaobaihe River Basin  Spatial change  South-To-North Water Transfer Project  Resource protection
基金项目:环境保护部生物多样性保护专项(No. 2016HB2096001006),农业部品种资源保护项目
作者单位E-mail
李雪健 中国科学院动物研究所 215866925@qq.com 
郭久波 密云水库管理处? 北京 101512  
牛诚祎 中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100101  
黄金清 中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100101  
曹坤 中国水产科学研究院 北京 100039  
何赛 中国水产科学研究院 北京 100039  
刘海波 中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100101  
赵亚辉 中国科学院动物研究所 zhaoyh@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      本研究结合历史鱼类标本和研究资料,整理了密云水库建成前潮白河流域的鱼类物种组成,并与2017年在潮白河流域23个调查点的采集数据进行了分析对比。结果显示,潮白河流域的土著鱼类由密云水库建成之前的至少48种减少为现阶段的35种;此外现阶段另有8种鱼类为外来种。目前潮白河流域内鲤科鱼类占物种总数的67%,且大多数为小型低营养级鱼类,流域内占比最高的优势种是宽鳍 (Zacco platypus)。本研究还以Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Pielou′s均匀性指数分析评估了潮白河流域内6条河流的鱼类多样性程度和空间变化,结果显示,流域内干流的多样性程度明显高于支流,密云水库上游河流明显高于下游河流,此外白河是本区域内多样性程度最高的河流,应加以重点保护。潮白河流域的密云水库是南水北调中线工程的受水水库,在这样的背景下,还应持续关注潮白河流域可能出现的外来物种问题。
英文摘要:
      The main objective of this study is to analyze the historical change and current status of fish species diversity of the Chaobaihe River Basin. We statistically compile the species composition of the fish in the Chaobaihe River Basin before the construction of Miyun Reservoir based on the historical fish specimens and research literatures, and compares it with the survey data of 23 collection sites in the Chaobaihe River basin in 2017, collection sites as shown in Fig. 1. Depending on the analysis and comparison, there were at least 47 species of native fish species before the construction of Miyun Reservoir in this basin. And now it reduced to 33 species, as shown in the Table 1 and the appendix. In addition, there are at least 8 introduced species in the basin, as shown in the Table 1. Cyprinid fishes in the Chaobaihe River Basin accounts for 67% of the total number of species. Most of them are low trophic level fish species. Zacco platypus is the dominant species. The fish diversity and spatial changes of six rivers in the basin were evaluated by Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou′s evenness index, the result of analytical computation as shown in Fig. 2, 3, 4 and 5. By analyzing the results we can see the degree of diversity of the mainstream is obviously higher than that of the tributaries in this basin, affected by the regulation of Miyun Reservoir (Regulate data of Miyun Reservoir as shown in Fig. 7) the upper reaches of the Miyun Reservoir are obviously higher than the lower reaches, and the Baihe River is the most diverse one which needs to be protected. Compared with the survey results of the Beijunhe River system and the Yongdinghe River system in the same period, the fish species richness, species diversity and species equability in the Chaobaihe River Basin are better than those of other two river systems, the data comparison as shown in Figure 8. Miyun Reservoir is the receiving waterbodies for the mid-route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. In this context, we should pay more attention to alien species in the Chaobaihe River Basin.
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