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王京,刘丹丹,黄勇杰,金屿淞,李慧仁,刘芳蕊,刘学爽,王立中,林英华.2018.大兴安岭重度火烧迹地地表土壤节肢动物群落特征.动物学杂志,53(6):878-889.
大兴安岭重度火烧迹地地表土壤节肢动物群落特征
Characteristic of Ground-dwelling Soil Arthropods Community in Severely Burned Sites in The Daxing′anling Range
投稿时间:2018-02-23  修订日期:2018-10-24
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201806006
中文关键词:  土壤节肢动物  火干扰  多样性  生态位
英文关键词:Soil arthropod  Fire disturbance  Diversity  Niche
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31570603)
作者单位E-mail
王京 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 workw@qq.com 
刘丹丹 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 497999108@qq.com 
黄勇杰 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 309049341@qq.com 
金屿淞 东北林业大学林学院 112734508@qq.com 
李慧仁 大兴安岭林业集团公司农林科学研究院 81219829@qq.com 
刘芳蕊 大兴安岭林业集团公司农林科学研究院 liufangrui327@163.com 
刘学爽 大兴安岭林业集团公司农林科学研究院 1366351939@qq.com 
王立中 大兴安岭林业集团公司农林科学研究院 2187876@qq.com 
林英华 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 linyinghua@263.net 
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中文摘要:
      火是生态系统的主要干扰因子之一,直接影响地表土壤动物群落多样性。为了解大兴安岭火烧迹地地表土壤动物群落恢复状况,于2016年6月和8月,选取松岭区南瓮河国家级自然保护区内2006年落叶松白桦混交林重度火烧迹地为实验样地、未受干扰的混交林为对照样地,采用陷阱法研究地表土壤节肢动物群落组成与多样性。本研究共捕获地表土壤节肢动物17 460只,隶属5纲14目57科85属。其中大型土壤节肢动物隶属4纲11目36科55属,优势类群为铺道蚁属(Tetramorium);中小型土壤节肢动物隶属2纲3目18科30属,优势类群为球角跳属(Hypogastrura)。整体而言,重度火烧迹地地表土壤节肢动物总个体数多于对照样地,而总类群数低于对照样地,但仅大型地表土壤节肢动物个体数明显低于对照样地(P < 0.05)。研究时段,8月份中小型土壤节肢动物的个体数明显高于6月份(P < 0.05)。群落多样性分析表明,重度火烧迹地与对照样地的地表土壤节肢动物群落多样性指数差异性不显著(P > 0.05),其中6月份中小型地表土壤节肢动物Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou均匀度指数与Margalef丰富度指数明显低于8月份(P < 0.01),而6月份Simpson优势度指数高于8月份(P < 0.01)。火烧迹地与对照样地土壤节肢动物群落相似性系数为0.78,不同月份之间地表土壤节肢动物群落相似性均为0.43,表明地表土壤节肢动物群落总体变化较小,但地表土壤节肢动物群落随时间发生改变。地表土壤节肢动物对研究区域资源的利用存在明显的差异(P < 0.01),重度火烧迹地可共同利用资源增多,对照样地可共同利用资源少而优势现象明显。重度火烧迹地地表主要土壤动物类群因可利用资源增加而导致生态位重叠指数增加。典型判别分析显示,地表土壤节肢动物群落受火烧干扰影响,且存在明显的季节变化。
英文摘要:
      Fire is one of the main disturbance factors for ecosystems, which directly affects the diversity of ground-dwelling soil fauna. This study aimed to examine the restoration of the ground-dwelling soil arthropods community in the burned area in The Daxing′anling Range. We investigated the ground-dwelling soil arthropod communities by pitfall traps in the Larix gmelinii - Betula platyphylla mixed forest at the locations suffered and not suffered the severe fire at all in the year 2006 at Songling in June and August ten years later (2016). Totally, we collected 17 460 individuals that belonged to 5 classes, 14 orders, 57 families, 85 genera (Appendix) in the burned and unburned sites. Of our collections, 55 genera were macro soil arthropods, belonged to 4 classes, 11 orders, 36 families, included 1 dominant group (Tetramorium); 30 genera were meso/micro soil arthropods, belonged to 2 classes, 3 orders, 18 families, included 1 dominant group (Hypogastrura). In general, the total number of ground-dwelling soil arthropods in the sampling site suffered severely burned was higher than that in the unburned sites. However, the individuals of soil macro arthropods in burned site were significantly less than that in the control site (P < 0.05). The ratio of meso/micro soil arthropods collected in August was significantly higher than that collected in June (P < 0.05). The diversity analysis showed that the ground-dwelling soil arthropods had no significant difference in the diversity indexes between severe burned and unburned sites (P > 0.05). Compared with August, the Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou evenness index and Margalef richness index of soil meso/micro arthropods (Table 2) were significantly lower in June, while Simpson dominance index was higher (P < 0.01). The Jaccard coefficient of soil arthropods in the burned and unburned sites was 0.78, and this value was 0.43 between June and August, which means the composition of ground-dwelling soil arthropods community has a little variance, but it changes with time. Soil arthropods had significant differences in the utilization of resources in the study area (P < 0.01), the types of resource were an increase in severely burned sites and a decrease in control. Thus, the dominant phenomenon was obvious, and the niche overlap index of major soil arthropod groups was increased due to the addition of available resources. Typical discriminant analysis (Fig. 1) showed that the ground-dwelling soil arthropod community was affected by the fire, and the affected degree was obvious change with seasons.
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