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申世常,陈融斌,黄良敏,王家樵,李军.2018.厦门海域蟹类的群落结构特征.动物学杂志,53(6):868-877.
厦门海域蟹类的群落结构特征
The Structure Characteristics of Crab Community in Xiamen Coastal Waters
投稿时间:2018-03-12  修订日期:2018-10-10
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201806005
中文关键词:  厦门海域  蟹类  种类组成  优势种  多样性  生物量
英文关键词:Xiamen coastal waters  Crab  Species composition  Dominant species  Diversity  Biomass
基金项目:福建省自然科学基金项目(No. 2015J01618),福建省海洋渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室开放基金项目(No. 201504030006),南方海洋中心项目(No. 13GQT001NF14)
作者单位E-mail
申世常 集美大学 1679507941@qq.com 
陈融斌 集美大学 chen_rb@yeah.net 
黄良敏 集美大学 lmhuang@jmu.edu.cn 
王家樵 集美大学 skyofstar1@163.com 
李军 集美大学 lijun1982@jmu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      根据2016年5月(春)、8月(夏)、11月(秋)和2017年2月(冬)在厦门海域(24°21′ ~ 24°39′N,117°54′ ~ 118°30′E)的蟹类资源调查资料,研究分析了该海域蟹类的种类组成、优势种、多样性和生物量分布变化的特点。结果表明,该海域有蟹类32种,隶属12科18属。种数以春季最高,秋季最低。调查海域四季中出现的优势种有7种:变态蟳(Charybdis variegata)、东方蟳(C. orientalis)、红星梭子蟹(Portunus sanguinolentus)、矛形梭子蟹(P. hastatoides)、强壮菱蟹(Parthenope validus)、日本蟳(C. japonica)和远海梭子蟹(Portunus pelagicus),其中日本蟳是四季共有的优势种。多样性指数(H′)以春季最高,秋季最低。生物量呈现出时空分布差异,秋季最高,春季最低;九龙江口(位于厦门海域西部)的蟹类生物量明显低于厦门岛其他海域,水深大于10 m水域的生物量小于水深小于等于10 m水域的生物量,这与九龙江径流、水深、水温等环境因素密切相关。与30年前相比,厦门海域蟹类的种数减少了约45%,优势种发生明显变化。
英文摘要:
      The assessment of crab resources in Xiamen coastal waters can provide basic information for the sustainable utilization and management of crab resources in Xiamen coastal waters. Based on sampling data from bottom trawl surveys in the coastal waters along the Xiamen (24°21′﹣24°39′N, 117°54′﹣118°30′E) collected by shrimp trawls during May (spring), August (summer), November (autumn) in 2016 and February in 2017 (winter) (Fig. 1), species composition, composition of dominant species, species diversity and biomass distribution of crab in Xiamen sea area were studied. There were 32 species of crab, belonging to 12 families and 18 genera (Table 1), being identified in the survey area. The highest species diversity occurred in spring and lowest in autumn (Table 2). Of them 7 species are dominant, named Charybdis variegata, C. orientalis, Portunus sanguinolentus, P. hastatoides, Parthenope validus, C. japonica and Portunus pelagicus. However, temporal- spatial distribution of dominant species were obviously different, there were three in spring, four in summer, four in autumn and two in winter. Among them, C. japonica was dominant species in four seasons of the year (Table 3). The species richness index (D) was 1.46﹣4.09, the Shannon-Wiener index (H′) was 1.35﹣2.25, and the species evenness index (J′) was 0.59﹣0.73. The diversity index was the highest in spring and the lowest in autumn (Table 4). The average biomass was 101.56 kg/km2 in autumn and 24.61 kg/km2 in spring, which was the highest and lowest season in a year (Fig. 2), Jiulong River Estuary exhibited lowest crab biomass when compared to other sampling sites (Fig. 3). Again, the biomass also varied with water depth. The biomass of water depth above 10 m was smaller than that of water depth under or equal to 10 m (Fig. 4). Except winter, it was concluded that biomass of crab varied with the seasons, stations and water depth, which were closely related to Jiulong River runoff, water depth, water temperature and other environmental factors. Compared with 30 years ago, the number of crab species in Xiamen decreased by 45% and the dominant species have changed obviously (Fig. 5).
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