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张琛,王勇,张美文.2019.东方田鼠的游泳行为和能力.动物学杂志,54(3):311-320.
东方田鼠的游泳行为和能力
Swimming Behavior and Ability of Microtus fortis
投稿时间:2018-06-14  修订日期:2019-02-21
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201903001
中文关键词:  东方田鼠  水生运动  皮毛防水性  游泳行为  长时间游泳能力
英文关键词:Microtus fortis  Aquatic movement  Waterproof property of fur  Swimming behavior  Long-term swimming ability
基金项目:国家自然科学(No. 31170396)
作者单位E-mail
张琛 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 shanyeyou78@qq.com 
王勇 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 wangy@isa.ac.cn 
张美文 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 zhangmw@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      东方田鼠(Microtus fortis)是一种栖息于湿地生境的小型哺乳动物,为了解其水生运动适应,作者在实验室内观察和测试了该鼠的游泳行为、皮毛防水性能和长时间游泳能力。结果发现,东方田鼠主要在水面游泳,亦能潜水,游泳姿势是狗刨式,并主要以后肢交替划水提供推进力,速度约为0.37 m/s。在20 ℃水温条件下,东方田鼠皮毛表现出良好的防水性能,且防水性能与其年龄及体重均存在极显著的负相关关系(P < 0.01,R2 = 0.805);东方田鼠具有平均约持续5 h以上的长时间游泳能力,且长时间游泳能力与其皮毛防水性能存在极显著的正相关关系(P < 0.01,R2 = 0.805 = 0.682);上述两项指标性别差异显著。这表明,东方田鼠有较强的水中运动能力和长时间游泳能力,具有水生运动方面的适应性进化,有利于其在沼泽等栖息地的生存。
英文摘要:
      Species of Microtus fortis, are always associated with rivers, flooded areas and wetland, and it is considered a good swimmer. To understand the adaptability of M. fortis to the aquatic movement, we observed and tested their swimming behavior, waterproof property of fur and ability in the laboratory and got the following results: M. fortis was able to swim on the water and underwater, but mainly swimed on the surface (Fig. 1), their swimming speed was about 0.37 m/s. The propulsion in water was maximized through a drag-based paddling motion. Their fur was waterproof that not only providing buoyancy, but also supporting they swimming longer time. They could swim as long as 5 h at 20 ℃ in this study. The waterproof quality of their fur was better in females than in males (P < 0.05), therefore female owned a bettter swimming ability (P < 0.05, Fig. 3). The long-term swimming ability of the vole is mainly determined by its fur waterproof performance (P < 0.01, R2 = 0.682, Table 3). At the same time, the resistance of fur to water had a negative correlation with their age and weight (P < 0.01, R2 = 0.805, Table 3). These results indicated M. fortis has well-waterproof fur and excellent long-term swimming ability. This species has evaluated adaptation to the aquatic movement.
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