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侯谨谨,王亚芳,金斌松,王榄华,王文娟.2019.鄱阳湖越冬白鹤在农业用地的食物组成.动物学杂志,54(1):15-21.
鄱阳湖越冬白鹤在农业用地的食物组成
Food Composition of Siberian Cranes in Agricultural Fields in the Poyang Lake, China
投稿时间:2018-07-27  修订日期:2018-12-17
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201901003
中文关键词:  苦草  鄱阳湖  人工生境  稻田  粪便显微镜检
英文关键词:Vallisneria spp.  Poyang Lake  Agricultural fields  Paddy field  Fecal microscopy
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31772480)
作者单位E-mail
侯谨谨 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所和生命科学学院 1406022264@qq.com 
王亚芳 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所和生命科学学院 464986405@qq.com 
金斌松 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所和生命科学学院 jin.binsong@gmail.com 
王榄华 江西生态摄影研究会 wlh163_001@163.com 
王文娟 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所和生命科学学院 wangwj@ncu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      白鹤(Grus leucogeranus)是IUCN极危物种,全球仅存3 500 ~ 4 000只,其中约98%的个体在鄱阳湖越冬。以前白鹤在鄱阳湖主要在浅水生境挖掘苦草(Vallisneria spp.)的冬芽为食。然而,近年来农业用地已成为白鹤的重要觅食地。目前对于白鹤在农业用地的食物组成尚不清楚。本研究采用粪便显微镜检法对2017年11月至2018年4月采集的70份白鹤粪便样品进行分析。结果表明,白鹤的食物来源于10科15种植物,其中,水稻(Oryza sativa)、莲藕(Nelumbo nucifera)和紫云英(Astragalus sinicus)为最主要的食物,这3种植物在检测到的食物中的相对密度分别为34.34%、22.99%和10.61%,而白鹤的传统食物苦草冬芽所占的比例极低(2.05%)。由此可见,白鹤的食物组成已经发生变化,农作物已成为白鹤的重要食物来源。白鹤在农业用地中觅食使该物种的保护面临一系列问题,尤其是高强度的人为干扰,对此,提出了相应的保护措施,希望为白鹤提供安全、稳定的觅食环境。
英文摘要:
      The Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus), an IUCN Critically Endangered species, comprises 3 500﹣4 000 individuals, with about 98% of its global population wintering in the Poyang Lake, China. Originally, Siberian cranes fed tubers of submerged plants, especially the Eel Grasses (Vallisneria spp.) in shallow water habitat of the lake. However, in the past few years, as the agricultural fields became their important foraging places, the diet of the Siberian Crane should have changed. To study the food composition of Siberian cranes in agricultural fields, we used microscopy method to analyze 70 fecal samples collected from 5 rice paddies and 2 lotus ponds during November 2017 and April 2018. We also collected plants at the foraging grounds to construct a referencing library of plant cell morphology, which was used to identify plants in fecal samples. Frequency conversion method was used to calculate density of each food resource. The food of Siberian cranes composed of 15 plant species belonging to 10 families (Table 1), with Rice (Oryza sativa, relative density 34.34%), Lotus Roots (Nelumbo nucifera, 22.99%), and Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus, 10.61%) being their main food items. However, the tuber of eel grasses, which formerly was their typical food, became extremely low proportion (2.05%). Therefore, the diet of Siberian cranes has changed very much, with the crops becoming their important food, as the degradation of submerged plants in the Poyang Lake. Foraging in agricultural fields, the Siberian cranes are facing a series of problems, especially high intensity of human disturbance. To provide a safe and stable foraging environment for cranes, we propose some protective measures, including enhancing environment education, promoting ecological compensation, restoring submerged plants, and constructing mini protected areas.
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