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王淼,周轩,徐开达.2019.杭州湾北部安氏白虾的繁殖生物学特征.动物学杂志,54(4):509-516.
杭州湾北部安氏白虾的繁殖生物学特征
Reproductive Biology of Palaemon annandalei in Northern Hangzhou Bay
投稿时间:2019-02-19  修订日期:2019-06-17
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201904008
中文关键词:  安氏白虾  性比  繁殖力  繁殖特征  杭州湾北部
英文关键词:Palaemon annandalei  Sex ratio  Fecundity  Reproductive characteristics  Northern Hangzhou Bay
基金项目:上海市农口系统青年人才成长计划项目(沪农青字[2017]第3–6号),上海市科技兴农重点攻关项目(No. 2017-02- 08-00-07-F00075),浙江省重点研发计划项目(No. 2019C02056),浙江省海洋渔业资源可持续利用技术研究重点实验室开放基金项目(No. 2016KF07)
作者单位E-mail
王淼 上海市水产研究所 wang.m_520@163.com 
周轩 上海市水产研究所 antelopezhou@sina.com 
徐开达 浙江省海洋水产研究所 xkd1981@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      采用2017年4月至2018年3月张网逐月采样数据分析杭州湾北部安氏白虾(Palaemon annandalei)的繁殖生物学特征。结果显示,安氏白虾体平均体长(32.0 ± 5.4)mm(14 ~ 51 mm,n = 3 210),抱卵群体平均体长(36.3 ± 3.4)mm(27 ~ 51 mm,n = 375)。体重分布范围为0.016 ~ 1.700 g,n = 3 210,平均体重(0.565 ± 0.282)g,抱卵群体体重分布范围为0.400 ~ 1.700 g,n = 375,平均体重(0.868 ± 0.225)g。雌、雄个体间平均体长和平均体重都具有显著性差异(P < 0.01);雌雄性比为1.27︰1,雌性个体数显著多于雄性个体数(P < 0.01)。繁殖期从4月下旬一直持续至10月下旬,6月和8月为两个繁殖旺期,抱卵率(B)和性比(S)具有显著线性相关关系(P < 0.05),关系式为B = 41.80S﹣21.06(R2 = 73.9)。绝对繁殖力为17 ~ 179粒,平均绝对繁殖力(60 ± 26)粒,平均相对繁殖力(70 ± 24)粒/g,n = 375。绝对繁殖力(FA,单位粒)与体长(L,单位mm)、体重(W,单位g)均呈二次函数显著相关(P < 0.01),关系式分别为FA = 0.29L2﹣18.52L + 342.67(R2 = 76.8)和FA = 97.32W2 ﹣100.75W + 71.66(R2 = 94.5)。卵长径分布范围为1.090 ~ 2.688 mm,平均长径(1.599 ± 0.158)mm,短径分布范围0.807 ~ 1.992 mm,平均短径(1.141 ± 0.118)mm,n = 2 787。研究表明,与20世纪80年代相比,安氏白虾个体朝小型化方向发展,繁殖周期延长,繁殖旺期由单峰型变为双峰型,这可能是生态环境持续恶化和高强度捕捞压力所致。
英文摘要:
      Palaemon annandalei is a commercially important shrimp in China, which is mainly distributed in the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the western coast of the Korean Peninsula. P. annandalei are especially abundant at the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent waters, which are the main catches by set net in northern Hangzhou Bay. A monthly sampling of P. annandalei by set net in northern Hangzhou Bay during the period from April 2017 to March 2018 was conducted for studying on its reproductive biology. The methods using to analyze these captures included curve estimation, chi square test, independent sample T test and paired sample T test. We analyzed the reproductive biological index such as body length, weight and sex ratio et al. of P. annandalei and got the results as the following: the distribution of body length of the shrimp ranged from 14 to 51 mm, whereas the average body length was 32.0 ± 5.4 mm, n = 3 210. The body length ranged from 27 to 51 mm, whereas the average body length was 36.3 ± 3.4 mm, n = 375. The body weight ranged from 0.016 to 1.700 g, whereas the average body weight was 0.565 ± 0.282 g, n = 3 210. The body weight of spawning stock ranged from 0.400 to 1.700 g with a mean body weight of 0.868 ± 0.225 g, n = 375. There was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between female and male on average body length and average body weight. The sex ratio of female to male was 1.27︰1, females were significantly more than that of males (P < 0.01). The reproductive period of the shrim in northern Hangzhou Bay lasted from late April to late October with two peak periods in June and August; a significant linear correlation was detected between brood porportion (B) and sex ratio (S) (P < 0.05), for the relational expression was: B = 41.80S﹣21.06 (R2 = 73.9). The absolute fecundity (FA, egg) ranged from 17 to 179 eggs, and the average absolute fecundity was 60 ± 26 eggs, while the average relative fecundity (FR , egg) was 70 ± 24 eggs/g, n = 375. The absolute fecundity was significantly correlated with body length (L, mm) and body weight (W, g) by quadratic function (P < 0.01), and the two relational expressions were FA = 0.29L2﹣18.52L + 342.67 (R2 = 76.8) and FA = 97.32W2﹣100.75W + 71.66 (R2 = 94.5), respectively. The long egg diameter ranged from 1.090 to 2.688 mm with a mean of 1.599 ± 0.158 mm; whereas the short egg diameter ranged from 0.807 to 1.992 mm with a mean value of 1.141 ± 0.118 mm, n = 2 787. Comparing our data with those collected in the 1980s, we found out that the body size of P. annandalei has miniaturized, while the shrimp has prolonged its reproduction period from single peak to double peak and increased its individual fecundity ability, as results from both environment degredation and higher fishing pressure.
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