• 首页关于本刊期刊订阅编委会作者指南过刊浏览
张谦益,钟浩,何飘雨,M?ller Anders Pape,夏灿玮.2019.麻雀幼鸟和成鸟逃逸距离的比较.动物学杂志,54(5):627-635.
麻雀幼鸟和成鸟逃逸距离的比较
Comparison of Escape Distances Between Juvenile and Adult Tree Sparrow
投稿时间:2019-03-10  修订日期:2019-08-27
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201905002
中文关键词:  逃逸  警戒距离  惊飞距离  飞逃距离  麻雀  年龄
英文关键词:Escape  Alert distance  Flight initiation distance  Distance ?ed  Tree Sparrows  Age
基金项目:北京师范大学本科生科研训练与创新创业项目
作者单位E-mail
张谦益 北京师范大学生命科学学院 北京 100875 201711200130@mail.bnu.edu.cn 
钟浩 北京师范大学生命科学学院 北京 100875 201711200141@mail.bnu.edu.cn 
何飘雨 北京师范大学生命科学学院 北京 100875 201411191004@mail.bnu.edu.cn 
M?ller Anders Pape 北京师范大学生命科学学院 北京 100875 anders.moller@u-psud.fr 
夏灿玮 北京师范大学生命科学学院 北京 100875 xiacanwei@bnu.edu.cn 
摘要点击次数: 503
全文下载次数: 215
中文摘要:
      逃逸是鸟类常用的反捕食手段。自然选择会优化鸟类的逃逸距离,以便在躲避被捕食风险和保持能量之间做出权衡。理论模型预测动物个体可依据期望寿命来调整自身的行为:期望寿命短的个体倾向于风险偏好,即逃逸距离短;而期望寿命长的个体倾向于风险回避,即逃逸距离长。同时,逃逸距离还受到外部因素(如人为干扰强度、鸟类群体大小)的影响。本研究在北京城区收集了麻雀(Passer montanus)145只成鸟和75只幼鸟的逃逸距离数据,发现麻雀成鸟比幼鸟有着更长的逃逸距离,且成鸟更可能是群体中首先逃逸的个体。此外,研究发现麻雀的逃逸距离随着人为干扰强度的增加而降低,随着群体大小增加而增加。本研究结果符合理论预期:存活率高的类群(成鸟)有着更长的逃逸距离。
英文摘要:
      A common measure of anti-predator defense in birds under field conditions is the escape-related distances, which an individual would take action (e.g. alert, ?ee) when approached by a potential predator (e.g. human). These distances represent a compromise between the risks of mortality due to predation and foraging opportunities. The difference of escape-related distances among groups should reflect the difference in expected probability of survival: the group with relatively good survival prospect can be predicted to take small risks (long escape-related distances) in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival. In addition, urban birds should have shorter escape-related distances in order to coexist with humans that caused frequent disturbance than rural ones, while larger flocks have more eyes that should result in an earlier detection of approaching predators, therefore, increasing escape-related distances. We used field data on age-specific escape-related distances in Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (145 adults and 75 juveniles) from Beijing city to test these predictions (Fig. 1 & 2). The analyses showed longer escape-related distances in adult than juvenile (Figs. 3 & 4) (e.g. alert distance in adults 11.76 ± 0.60 m, in juveniles 9.33 ± 0.71 m, Mann-Whitney U test, Z = 2.662,P = 0.008; flight initiation distance in adults 8.71 ± 0.53 m, in juveniles 7.31 ± 0.68 m, Mann-Whitney U test, Z = 1.872,P = 0.061), and the adults, rather than juveniles, have higher probability to be the first individuals to escape within the flock (χ2 = 4.934,df = 1,P = 0.026). Independently, escape-related distances were significantly negatively related with the number of pedestrians, and positively correlated with flock size (Table 1). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adults take smaller risks than juveniles.
附件
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器