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贾嘉,楼瑛强,张向前,吕楠③,方昀,常佩兰,侯建华,孙悦华①.2019.甘肃莲花山黑冠山雀繁殖生态的初步研究.动物学杂志,54(4):478-483.
甘肃莲花山黑冠山雀繁殖生态的初步研究
Breeding Ecology of the Rufous-vented Tit Periparus rubidiventris in Lianhuashan Nature Reserve, Gansu Province
投稿时间:2019-03-11  修订日期:2019-05-22
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201904004
中文关键词:  黑冠山雀  繁殖生态  窝卵数  人工巢箱
英文关键词:Rufous-vented Tit, Periparus rubidiventris  Breeding ecology  Clutch size  Artificial nest-boxes
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.31672298)
作者单位E-mail
贾嘉 ①中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100100②河北大学 生命科学学院 保定 071002 13699561565@163.com 
楼瑛强 中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100100 louyq@ioz.ac.cn 
张向前 河北大学 生命科学学院 保定 071002 1299696914@qq.com 
吕楠③ 北京师范大学 生命科学学院 北京 100101 lvnan@ioz.ac.cn 
方昀 中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100100 fangyun@ioz.ac.cn 
常佩兰 甘肃莲花山国家级自然保护区管理局 临夏 731516 290967524@qq.com 
侯建华 河北大学 生命科学学院 保定 071002 13633325718@163.com 
孙悦华① 中国科学院动物研究所 北京 100100 sunyh@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      2017和2018年每年的4至8月在甘肃莲花山国家级自然保护区,对人工巢箱中黑冠山雀(Periparus rubidiventris)的繁殖生态进行了研究。共悬挂100个巢箱,两年共计招引到15巢黑冠山雀。此外,还记录到4个自然巢,分别位于干枯的糙皮桦(Betula utilise)树洞(1巢)、土坡的缝隙(1巢)和路边水泥护坡的出水管中(2巢)。黑冠山雀雌雄亲鸟共同筑巢,巢内壁为兽毛夹杂少量绒羽,外壁为草茎须根和苔藓。5月中下旬为黑冠山雀的产卵高峰期,清晨产卵,日产1枚,产下最后1枚卵后开始孵卵。平均窝卵数为6枚(4 ~ 7 枚,n = 15),平均卵重(1.12 ± 0.02)g,卵长径(15.30 ± 0.10)mm,卵短径(12.09 ± 0.11)mm(n = 86)。孵卵由雌鸟承担,孵卵期为15 d(14 ~ 16 d,n = 5)。产卵期,雌鸟离巢时有用巢材盖卵的行为,开始孵卵后则不再盖卵。双亲共同育雏,育雏期为16 d和17 d(n = 2)。所记录的18巢黑冠山雀的繁殖成功率为83.3%,人工巢箱(15巢)中繁殖成功率为86.7%,巢捕食者主要为鼠类。
英文摘要:
      We studied the breeding ecology of the Rufous-vented Tit (Periparus rubidiventris) at Lianhuashan Nature Reserve, Gansu Province, from April to August in 2017-2018. A total of 100 nest-boxes were hung while 15 were used by Rufous-vented Tits in two years (Fig. 1). We also found four natural nests, which located in a hole of a dry birch (Betula utilize) (Fig. 1), crevice in walls and outlet pipes in cement revetment by the roadside. From mid-April, we started to check the nest-boxes once a week. When mosses or other fillings were found in the nest-boxes, we checked them more frequently (normally each day) and made notes of their laying dates, hatch dates, clutch sizes and numbers of nestlings. The data were calculated by SPSS 21.0 for Windows, and were expressed by Mean ± SE. Both sexes participated in the nest-building work. The outer part of the nest was constructed with grass stems, fibrous roots and mosses while the inner part being constructed with animal hairs and a few of small feathers. The peak of laying date was around of mid-to-late May, with one egg laid per day and an average clutch size of 6 eggs (4﹣7, n = 15). Females covered the egg with the nest materials before incubating. The average weight of the eggs was 1.12 ± 0.02 g, with the size of 15.30 ± 0.10 mm × 12.09 ± 0.11 mm (n = 86). Females began to incubate after the last egg was laid and the incubation period lasted around 15 d (14﹣16 d, n = 5). Both sexes fed the nestlings, we also measured the nestlings of 13 nests (Fig. 2). In this study, the breeding success rate was 83.3% for all nests, and 86.7% for the nest-boxes, with the main predators of mice.
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