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程成,谢乔,李飞,卢刚.2019.海南岛红树林湿地的水鸟多样性.动物学杂志,54(5):636-645.
海南岛红树林湿地的水鸟多样性
Waterbird Diversity in Mangrove Wetlands in Hainan Island, China
投稿时间:2019-03-27  修订日期:2019-08-26
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201905003
中文关键词:  水鸟  季节动态  红树林  海南岛  黑脸琵鹭
英文关键词:Waterbirds  Seasonal dynamics  Mangrove wetlands  Hainan Island  Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor)
基金项目:UNDP-GEF海南湿地保护体系项目(No. 00084186)
作者单位E-mail
程成 海南省林业科学研究所 海口 571100 cc401@163.com 
谢乔 广西大学林学院 南宁 530000 cc401@163.com 
李飞 海南观鸟会 海口 571100 cc401@163.com 
卢刚 海南观鸟会 海口 571100 cc401@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      从2015年10月至2016年6月,调查了海南岛17个沿海红树林湿地春、夏、秋、冬四季的湿地鸟类。共记录水鸟74种,隶属5目12科,其中,翘鼻麻鸭(Tadorna tadorna)为海南鸟类分布新记录种。位于海南省儋州市白马井镇洋浦湾的新英作为黑脸琵鹭(Platalea minor)新的越冬点被发现。全岛水鸟数量较多的地点在万宁小海、海口东寨港和乐东莺歌海,种类较多的地点在东寨港、东方四更和莺歌海。Jaccard指数分析表明,栖息地具有相似适合度的地方,水鸟种类相似性更高,人工湿地之间的水鸟相似性高,人工湿地与天然湿地之间的水鸟相似性低。海南岛沿海红树林湿地的鸟类种类和数量随季节变化,秋、冬季种类多、数量丰富,春、夏季的种类和数量均较少。鸻鹬类在春、冬季种类和数量占比均为最大,秋、夏季数量最多的为鹭类。Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou均匀度指数分析得出东寨港的多样性指数最高,东寨港和莺歌海的均匀度指数表现较高。研究表明,海南岛的沿海红树林湿地是很多水鸟的重要栖息地,保护红树林是保护湿地水鸟多样性的关键。
英文摘要:
      Waterbirds and their seasonal dynamics in 17 mangrove wetlands including Mingren, Huiwen, Xiaohai, Li’angang, Tielugang, Yuya, Qiugang, Yinggehai, Shan′gao, Sigeng, Changhuajiang, Haiwei, Yangpugang, Xinying, Huaguo, Dongzhaigang and Sanjiang (Fig. 1) in Hainan Island, China, were surveyed from November 2015 to June 2016 with binoculars and monocular telescopes by line transects and point counts methods. A total of 74 waterbird species of 5 orders and 12 families were recorded (Appendix 1), among which the Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) was recorded for the first time in Hainan Island. The Xinying Bay in Danzhou was found as a new wintering site for the Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor). The Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou index and Jaccard index were measured to identify the waterbird diversity. Shorebird species were accounted for the largest proportion in autumn (10.9%), winter (28.3%), spring (31.5%) and summer (20.8%). The number of shorebirds was the largest proportions in winter (55.7%) and spring (47.6%), however, the number of herons being the largest proportion in autumn (48.6%) and summer (41.5%)(Table 1). The sites with the largest number of waterbirds were Xiaohai of Wanning, Dongzhaigang of Haikou and Yinggehai of Ledong. The sites with the species richness of waterbirds were Dongzhaigang, Sigeng, Yinggehai, Xinying, Changhuagang, Yuya and Huiwen (Table 2). The Pielou index in Huaguo, Shan′gao, Dognzhaigang and Yingehai was higher (Table 2). Dongzhaigang has the highest Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index. The analysis showed the higher Jaccard comparability index in similar habitats, with Huaguo and Mingren showing more species similarity (Table 4). The abundance and richness of waterbirds showed seasonal dynamics with more species and higher abundance detected in autumn and winter. Our study suggest that coastal mangrove wetlands are important habitats for waterbirds, and protecting mangroves wetlands being a key role in conservation of waterbirds.
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