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马亦生,马青青,孙亮,李帅,周刚,李涛,董乐乐,曹李华,朱大鹏.2020.基于红外相机技术对佛坪国家级自然保护区 大熊猫季节性空间分布与活动模式的研究.动物学杂志,55(1):20-28.
基于红外相机技术对佛坪国家级自然保护区 大熊猫季节性空间分布与活动模式的研究
The Seasonal Spatial Distribution and Activity Pattern of Giant Panda Distribution in Foping National Nature Reserve Based on Camera-trapping Data
投稿时间:2019-06-11  修订日期:2020-01-06
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202001003
中文关键词:  大熊猫  佛坪国家级自然保护区  红外相机技术  季节性分布  相对多度
英文关键词:Ailuropoda Melanoleuca  Foping National Nature Reserve  Camera trapping  Relative abundance index
基金项目:大熊猫国际合作项目(No. SG1405,2017115)
作者单位E-mail
马亦生 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
马青青 陕西省渭南市农业技术推广中心 渭南 714000 1989803800@qq.com 
孙亮 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
李帅 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
周刚 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
李涛 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
董乐乐 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
曹李华 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
朱大鹏 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1989803800@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      2015年1月至2017年12月,在陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区海拔1 200 ~ 2 500 m的57条大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)活动频繁的巡护样线上,布设130台红外相机。累计红外相机有效工作日100 685 d,共拍摄到大熊猫有效独立照片1 831张。将红外相机拍摄的有效照片和相机工作日依据不同竹种类型及保护站归类,对大熊猫季节性空间分布与活动模式进行研究。结果表明:(1)大熊猫春季活动最为频繁,在巴山木竹(Bashania fargesii)林和秦岭箭竹(Fargesia qinlingensis)林中相对多度分别是2.89和3.72;其次是冬季,在巴山木竹林和秦岭箭竹林中的相对多度分别是2.95和2.74。3月份是其活动高峰,巴山木竹林和秦岭箭竹林中的相对多度指数都是最高;11、12和1月份,大熊猫在巴山木竹林中相对多度指数高于秦岭箭竹林;2至10月份,大熊猫在秦岭箭竹林中的相对多度指数都要高于巴山木竹林。(2)大熊猫在佛坪保护区各个保护站均有分布,且存在季节性空间分布差异。三官庙和西河保护站全年的12个月都能够捕获到大熊猫的身影,是大熊猫分布相对多度最高的两个区域,大古坪、岳坝和龙潭子3个保护站海拔较低,大熊猫主要集中在冬春季节活动;凉风垭保护站海拔较高,主要分布的是秦岭箭竹林,大熊猫主要在夏季活动。(3)干扰活动主要包括采集、放牧、旅游、家犬活动和监测5种类型。干扰活动类型在各个保护站存在差异,且多为零星干扰,对大熊猫的活动和分布存在一定影响。本研究较为全面地调查了佛坪国家级自然保护区大熊猫季节性活动动态和区域性分布状况,调查结果可为后期的保护管理提供有效的参考依据。
英文摘要:
      To study the seasonal activity pattern and regional heterogeneity distribution of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we installed 130 infrared cameras alongside 57 transects at 1200-2500m above sea level in Foping National Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province, from Jan 2015 to Dec 2017. The infrared cameras operated effectively for 100 685 days and took 1 831 effective pictures of giant pandas. Then we classified the pictures and the cameras’ working time according to bamboo-forest types and conservation-station locations to determine their seasonal spatial distribution and activity patterns. The results showed that: (1) Giant pandas were most active in spring, then in winter. The relative abundance indexes in Bashania fargesii forest and Fargesia qinlingensis forest, were respectively 2.89 and 3.72 in spring, and 2.95 and 2.74 in winter. The relative abundance index was highest in Bashania fargesii forest and Fargesia qinlingensis forest, and it means an activity peak of giant panda at March. The relative abundance index of giant pandas in B. fargesii forest was higher than that of F. qinlingensis forest in Nov, Dec and Jan, and lower in the remaining months. (2) Giant pandas existed in every conservation station, yet showed seasonal distribution differences. Sanguanmiao and Xihe stations, with the highest relative abundance indexes, caught their activity throughout the year. Giant pandas were primarily active in spring and winter at Daguping, Yueba and Longtanzi stations at a lower altitude; they were active in summer at Liangfenya station at a higher altitude, which is primarily covered with F. qinlingensis forest. (3) Human disturbance, showing some discrepancy between conservation stations, mainly included gathering, herding, travelling, domestic dog activity and monitoring. Though mostly sporadic, it affected the activities and distribution of giant pandas. This study has comprehensively investigated the seasonal dynamics and regional distribution of giant pandas in Foping National Nature Reserve. Its findings will provide valid reference for future conservation and management of giant pandas.
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