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李翔,谭霄鹏,赵磊,陈睿涵,付昌健,向晨旭,袁立成,叶紫芸,邢晓莹.2019.哈尔滨家燕mandschurica亚种繁殖生态特征.动物学杂志,54(6):793-799.
哈尔滨家燕mandschurica亚种繁殖生态特征
Breeding Biology of the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica mandschurica in Harbin City, China
投稿时间:2019-06-20  修订日期:2019-10-29
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201906003
中文关键词:  家燕mandschurica亚种  哈尔滨  繁殖生态
英文关键词:Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica mandschurica  Harbin  Breeding ecology
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项(No. 2572019BE05),国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31501867,31770454),东北林业大学大学生创新训练项目(No. 201810225026)
作者单位E-mail
李翔 东北林业大学野生动物与自然保护地学院 哈尔滨 150040 771610511@qq.com 
谭霄鹏 东北林业大学野生动物与自然保护地学院 哈尔滨 150040 3505433074@qq.com 
赵磊 东北林业大学 野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 787730997@qq.com 
陈睿涵 东北林业大学 野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 1798618702@qq.com 
付昌健 东北林业大学 野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 3218561558@qq.com 
向晨旭 东北林业大学 野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 3564329954@qq.com 
袁立成 东北林业大学 野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 913193645@qq.com 
叶紫芸 东北林业大学 野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 2389018136@qq.com 
邢晓莹 东北林业大学 野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 ab71588@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      许多鸟种因具有较强的适应性而分布广泛,例如家燕(Hirundo rustica)。在不同纬度地区研究其繁殖生态学特征有助于了解家燕对不同环境的适应。家燕mandschurica亚种在国内仅分布于黑龙江省,且该亚种的繁殖资料少有报道,为此,于2016和2017年每年的4至10月,在哈尔滨对其繁殖生态特征开展研究,并与国内目前已发表的家燕gutturalis亚种繁殖生态特征进行对比。家燕mandschurica亚种4月底或5月初迁来哈尔滨,9月下旬或10月初南迁;窝卵数为4 ~ 6枚(n = 19);卵长径(18.7 ± 1.4)mm(15.9 ~ 22.5 mm)、卵短径(13.0 ± 0.5)mm(12.2 ~ 14.2 mm),卵重(1.6 ± 0.1)g(1.3 ~ 1.9 g),n = 35;孵卵期为(16 ± 2)d(14 ~ 18 d,n = 19);育雏期为(17 ± 1)d(16 ~ 18 d,n = 6)。雏鸟的体长、翅长及尾羽长的生长曲线能与Logistic较好地拟合;体重、嘴峰和跗跖在5日龄左右生长最快,体长和翅长在7日龄左右增长最快,雏鸟的生长模式符合能量分配假说。与我国南方的家燕gutturalis亚种相比,在哈尔滨繁殖的mandschurica亚种的卵更小、更轻,二者孵卵期相似,但后者育雏期更短。这或许与不同地区食物丰富度及亲鸟喂食策略有关。
英文摘要:
      The Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) is widely distributed in China, and the research on its reproduction ecology in different latitudes is helpful to reveal its adaptation to different environments. At present, the available records of the breeding ecology of the Barn Swallow is mainly focused on the subspecies of H. r. gutturalis, while data from other subspecies is lacking. From April to October in 2016 and 2017, we studied the H. r. mandschurica subspecies of Barn Swallow, which distributed only in Heilongjiang Province, in Northeast Forestry University in Harbin of China. At the same time, the reproductive ecology data were supplemented to explore whether there were differences in reproductive ecology among subspecies with different phenotypes. The reproductive behaviors were observed daily after immigrating. The morphology (including body weight, body length, wing length, tarsus length, bill length and tail length) of the nestlings were measured daily. The data was sorted and analyzed with SPSS 22.0. Our results showed that swallows arrived at the breeding areas in late April or early May and migrated southward in late September or early October. The clutch size was 4﹣6 (n = 19), long diameter of egg was 18.7 ± 1.4 mm (15.9﹣22.5 mm), short diameter of egg was 13.0 ± 0.5 mm (12.2﹣14.2 mm), egg mass was 1.6 ± 0.1 g (1.3﹣1.9 g, n = 35), and the incubation period was 16 ± 2 d (14﹣18 d, n = 19). The nestling-feeding period was 17 ± 1 d (16﹣18 d, n = 6). Nestlings’ growth curves (for body length, wing length and tail length) fitted well with a Logistic Growth Curve (Table 2). Body weight and tarsus grew the fastest at the age of 5 days, while body length and wing length increased the fastest at the age of 7 days (Table 1). The growth pattern of the nestlings conforms to the Energy Distribution Hypothesis. There are many differences in reproductive parameters between the swallows in the study area and other populations of H. r. gutturalis, including: eggs were smaller in size, lighter in weight, incubation period was similar to but feeding period was shorter than that of some southern populations of H. r. gutturalis. This may be caused by the differences of local food richness and parental feeding strategies among different populations.
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