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吉晟男,刘雅欣,陶夏秋,肖能文,李春旺.2020.北京市延庆区哺乳动物多样性、 分布及影响因素.动物学杂志,55(1):9-19.
北京市延庆区哺乳动物多样性、 分布及影响因素
Diversity, Distribution, and Influencing Factor of Mammal in Yanqing District, Beijing
投稿时间:2019-07-26  修订日期:2019-12-20
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202001002
中文关键词:  哺乳动物多样性  分布  影响因素  延庆
英文关键词:Mammalian biodiversity  Distribution  Influencing factor  Yanqing District, Beijing
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No. 2016YFC0500206-1),生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(No. 2017HB2096001006),生物多样性调查评估项目(No. 2019HJ2096001006)
作者单位E-mail
吉晟男 中国环境科学研究院 jisn@craes.org.cn 
刘雅欣 ② 河北大学生命科学学院 保定 071002③ 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101 lyaxin@126.com 
陶夏秋 ④ 南京师范大学生命科学学院江苏省生物多样性与生物技术重点实验室 南京 210023 txq15580021794@126.com 
肖能文 ① 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室 北京 100012 xiaonw@163.com 
李春旺 ③ 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101 ⑤ 中国科学院大学 北京 100049 licw@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      2017和2018年,综合样线调查法、红外相机法、样方笼捕法、洞穴调查法和访问调查法五种方法对北京市延庆区哺乳动物多样性及分布进行调查,并分析了影响其多度与分布的因素。本次调查结果显示,北京市延庆区有哺乳动物7目15科21种。从相对丰富度指数(RAI)来看,野猪(Sus scrofa)占绝对优势(28.27%),其次猪獾(Arctonyx collaris)(21.47%)、亚洲狗獾(Meles leucurus)(13.79%),最少的是山东小麝鼩(Crocidura shantungensis)和东北鼢鼠(Myospalax psilurus)仅为0.17%。从分布上来看,野猪分布最广,占全部调查网格数的84.21%;其次是猪獾和亚洲狗獾,各占73.68%;山东小麝鼩等6个物种各只在1个网格中记录到,占全部网格的5.26%。所有工作区域中,延庆区西南的松山保护区及野鸭湖保护区物种丰富度最高,东北部的水头沟和九眼楼风景区物种丰富度最低。当前威胁哺乳动物多样性的因素主要是“水源情况”和“人类活动”,为更好地保护该区域哺乳动物多样性,建议:(1)在缺水的区域进行人工引水或建立永久补水点;(2)在非保护区加强对野生动物的保护宣传,以减少旅游登山等对野生哺乳动物的干扰。
英文摘要:
      To have more overall investigation, field surveys were carried out to investigate the diversity and distribution of mammals in Yanqing district by line transect method, camera-trapping, live traps, cave survey, and interview survey, Beijing from 2017 to 2018. We analyzed the factors influencing the mammal abundance and distribution. Twenty one species were recorded (belonging to 7 orders and 15 families). By the relative abundance index (RAI), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) was the highest detected species (28.27%), followed by Hog-badger (Arctonyx collaris, 21.47%) and Asian Badger (Meles leucurus, 13.79%), the Asian Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura shantungensis, 0.17%) and north China Zokor (Myospalax psilurus, 0.17%) were the least two species in number (Table 4). By the distribution, Wild Boar is the most widely distributed mammal, accounting for 84.21% of all survey grids, followed by Hog-badger and Asian Badger, 73.68% of the total number of survey grids. Asian Lesser White-toothed Shrew and other 5 species only have one record in the grid, 5.26% of the total number of grids (Table 1). The highest species richness was found in Songshan National Nature Reserve and the Wild Duck Lake Wetland both located in southwestern part of Yanqing. The minimum species richness occurred in Shuitou Valley Scenic Spots and Jiuyanlou Scenic Spots in the northeastern section of Yanqing (Fig.1). The main negative influence factors on the mammal diversity is recognized as “water resource availability” and “distribution of human activity”. On the purpose of better protection for the diversity of mammals in this region, we recommended that: (1) building diversion works or establish the permanent water points in water-deficient regions, and (2) strengthening the wildlife conservation education in non-protected areas to reduce the interference of tourism such as mountaineering to wild mammals.
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