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马东辉,姚星星,李建亮,卢梦洁,包新康.2020.荒漠伯劳的递食位置与同胞竞争.动物学杂志,55(4):430-439.
荒漠伯劳的递食位置与同胞竞争
Feeding Position of the Parents and Sibling Competition among the Nestlings in Rufous-tailed Shrike (Lanius isabellinus)
投稿时间:2019-11-22  修订日期:2020-07-02
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202004003
中文关键词:  荒漠伯劳  递食位置  异步孵化  同胞竞争  繁殖行为
英文关键词:Rufous-tailed Shrike, Lanius isabellinus  Feeding position  Asynchrony hatching  Sibling competition  Reproductive behavior
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31672296,31172104)
作者单位E-mail
马东辉 兰州大学生命科学学院 兰州 730000 madh18@lzu.edu.cn 
姚星星 兰州大学生命科学学院 兰州 730000 597947032@qq.com 
李建亮 兰州大学生命科学学院 兰州 730000 yedongzhiyou@163.com 
卢梦洁 兰州大学生命科学学院 兰州 730000 3269327943@qq.com 
包新康 兰州大学生命科学学院 兰州 730000 baoxk@lzu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      亲鸟递食位置可以调控雏鸟之间的竞争,而异步孵化会使不同孵出顺序雏鸟的体况产生等级差异。雏鸟可以通过竞争巢中有利位置来获得更多的食物资源,从而提高自身生长发育速度和存活率。本研究于2013和2014年两年的4至8月对甘肃安西荒漠保护区桥子片区22巢荒漠伯劳(Lanius isabellinus)的递食行为进行研究。结果发现,荒漠伯劳亲鸟递食的位置主要集中在1个(n = 13,比例超过50%)或2个(n = 9,合并比例超过60%)位置上,具有一定的可预测性;处于亲鸟递食位置直线方向上的雏鸟获食次数显著高于两侧位置(n = 22,P < 0.001)。但异步孵化雏鸟的孵出顺序与其在巢内占据直线(df = 4,F = 0.211,P > 0.05)和两侧位置(df = 4,F = 0.068,P > 0.05)的次数都不具相关性;并且不同孵出顺序雏鸟间平均获食次数无明显差异(df = 4,F = 0.090,P > 0.05);拟合不同孵出顺序的雏鸟生长曲线发现,不同孵出顺序雏鸟的体重生长率也没有表现出明显差异(df = 4,F = 0.637,P > 0.05)。研究结果表明,荒漠伯劳亲鸟趋于固定递食位置并向直线方向递食;但雏鸟间具有较小的同胞竞争,出飞等级差异不显著,这可能与繁殖地短暂的食物丰富度和雏鸟本身对于乞食与获食之间的利弊权衡有关。
英文摘要:
      In birds, sibling competition of nestlings could be controlled by feeding position of parents on the nest edge, and asynchrony hatching might exacerbate this competition. In the meantime, the nestlings can get more food for their growth and survival by competing for advantageous positions in the nest. From April to August in 2013 and 2014, 22 nests of Rufous-tailed Shrike (Lanius isabellinus) in Gansu Anxi Extreme-Arid Desert National Nature Reserve had been found, and we videotaped the feeding behavior of these nests from 1-day-old nestling until fledglings to check the parents feeding positions and nestlings food-receiving sites. Meanwhile, we measured body weight of all nestlings every two days using electronic scale (precision of 0.01 g) to calculate the growth curves. All data analysis was made in SPSS 19.0. Specifically, Chi-square test was used to find significant difference among four feeding positions of parents, and one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the relationship between the hatching order of nestlings and the frequency which the nestlings occupied linear or bilateral sites in the nest when they got food, and the relation between the hatching order of nestlings and the average times of nestlings getting food. Our results showed that the parents feeding positions were predictable and mainly gathered at 1 (n = 13, proportion > 50%) or 2 sites (n = 9, addition proportion > 60%) (Table 1), and the nestlings in the straight line of the parents feeding position got more food than those in the two sides (n = 22, P < 0.001, Table 2). Furthermore, the hatching order of nestlings was not correlated with the frequency they occupied linear (df = 4, F = 0.211, P > 0.05, Fig. 2) or bilateral (df = 4, F = 0.068, P > 0.05, Fig. 2) positions in the nest, and there was no significant difference in food getting frequency among the nestlings with different hatching order (df = 4, F = 0.090, P > 0.05, Table 3). The growth rate of nestlings’ weight in different hatching order did not show significant difference (df = 4, F = 0.637, P > 0.05, Table 4). The parents of Rufous-tailed Shrike preferred to feed in a straight direction with fixed feeding position to control the sibling competition of nestlings, but the shrike siblings were in week competition, we suggest that it was associated with the short-term food richness of the breeding areas, and the trade-off between begging and food intake of the nestlings themselves.
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