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郑文军,郑建刚,周占彬,王立山,侯锋,尹昭霞,周振兴.2021.甘肃张掖黑河湿地黑鹳繁殖和迁徙习性.动物学杂志,56(1):126-130.
甘肃张掖黑河湿地黑鹳繁殖和迁徙习性
Reports on the Breeding and Migration of Black Stork in Heihe Wetland, Zhangye, Gansu Province
投稿时间:2019-11-23  修订日期:2020-12-31
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202101016
中文关键词:  黑鹳  繁殖  迁徙  黑河湿地
英文关键词:Black Stork, Ciconia nigra  Breeding  Migration  Heihe Wetland
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
郑文军 甘肃高台县湿地局 高台 734300 1244112310@qq.com 
郑建刚 甘肃高台县新坝镇农业综合服务中心 高台 734300 810603325@qq.com 
周占彬 甘肃高台县湿地局 高台 734300 1244112310@qq.com 
王立山 甘肃高台县湿地局 高台 734300 1244112310@qq.com 
侯锋 甘肃高台县林草局 高台 734300 1244112310@qq.com 
尹昭霞 甘肃高台县湿地局 高台 734300 1244112310@qq.com 
周振兴 甘肃高台县湿地局 高台 734300 1244112310@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      黑鹳(Ciconia nigra)属国家Ⅰ级保护野生动物。2010至2018年,通过样线、样带和固定样点调查的方法对张掖黑河湿地国家级自然保护区的黑鹳种群进行了监测,黑鹳最大种群数量均出现在每年的9月下旬,数量120 ~ 430只不等,年均308只。春季迁徙季节,黑鹳于3至4月到达保护区,部分个体会在此繁殖,其他个体会继续迁徙;秋季迁徙季节,黑鹳于8月中旬开始迁徙到达,9月下旬出现最大种群,10月中下旬陆续迁离,极少数个体在本地区过冬。2012至2018年对合黎山正义峡、榆树河、车轱辘河3个观察区域持续跟踪监测,共记录到有9个繁殖巢7年内的有效繁殖巢37个。巢多位于崖壁上,主要由粗树枝筑成,外径110 ~ 170 cm,内径40 ~ 70 cm,高45 ~ 84 cm,巢深4 ~ 7 cm(n = 9)。产卵期6 ~ 8 d,产卵间隔1或1.5 d,窝卵数4或5枚(n = 9)。根据对19枚卵的测量,卵短径为47 ~ 55 mm,卵长径为63 ~ 71 mm。第1枚卵产出后即开始孵卵,由雌雄亲鸟轮流进行,孵卵期33或34 d(n = 37),幼鸟为异步孵化,需要3 ~ 5 d才可以全部出壳。雌雄共同育雏,雏鸟70日龄时才具飞行能力,并在巢附近短距离练习飞行,直至100日龄后才不归巢。根据历年的监测,本区域黑鹳的孵化成功率为55.2%,每巢平均繁育成功幼鸟(2.6 ± 0.6)只(n = 37)。本研究较为全面地掌握了黑鹳在本区域的繁殖和迁徙习性,为开展黑鹳研究和保护提供了基础资料。
英文摘要:
      The Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) is a national first-class wildlife protection animal in China. From 2010 to 2018, we used line transects and point transects to monitor the population of Black Stork at Zhangye Heihe Wetland National Nature Reserve. We also collected the breeding information of Black Stork in our study area. According to our investigation, the largest population of Black Stork appeared in late September every year, ranging from 120﹣430 ind. During the spring migration season, Black Stork arrived at our study area in March and April, while some individuals bred here and others kept migrating. During the autumn migration season, some Black Storks arrived in the middle of August, while most of them arrived in late September, and they stayed here until late October. A small population stayed in this area during winter. From 2012 to2018, we systematically checked 9 nest sites and found 37 active nests totally. All the nests were built on cliffs, mainly built by twigs. The nests were plate-shaped, with outer diameter of 110﹣170 cm, inner diameter of 40﹣70 cm, inner depth of 4﹣7 cm, height of 45﹣84 cm. Egg laying period lasted 6﹣8 d and the clutch size was 4 or 5. According to measurements of 19 eggs, the short axis was 47﹣55 cm and the long axis was 63﹣71 cm. Parents began incubation after the first egg was laid and both sexes participated in incubation. The incubation period lasted 33 or 34 d and it took 3﹣5 d for all nestlings hatched. Both sexes brooded the young. Nestlings needed up to 70 days to gain flight ability and they usually fledged at 100 days old. According to the 37 nests, the hatching rate was 55.2%, and 2.6 ± 0.6 nestlings fledges per nest on average. We hope our findings could provide more information for conservation and comparative study of Black Stork.
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