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吴康娟,张琛,王勇,张美文.2020.洞庭湖区两种小型兽类的游泳 行为及皮毛防水性比较.动物学杂志,55(4):421-429.
洞庭湖区两种小型兽类的游泳 行为及皮毛防水性比较
Comparison of Swimming Behavior and Fur Waterproofness of Two Small Mammals in Dongting Lake
投稿时间:2019-11-28  修订日期:2020-07-01
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202004002
中文关键词:  黑线姬鼠  灰麝鼩  皮毛吸水率  皮毛吸水速率  水生适应  游泳行为
英文关键词:Apodemus agrarius  Crocidura attenuata  Water absorption rate of the fur  Water absorption growth rate  Aquatic adaptation  Swimming behavior
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31170396)
作者单位E-mail
吴康娟 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 洞庭湖湿地生态 系统观测研究站 长沙 410125中国科学院大学 北京 100049 834332584@qq.com 
张琛 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 洞庭湖湿地生态 系统观测研究站 长沙 410125中国科学院大学 北京 100049 shanyeyou78@qq.com 
王勇 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 洞庭湖湿地生态 系统观测研究站 长沙 410125 wangy@isa.ac.cn 
张美文 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 洞庭湖湿地生态 系统观测研究站 长沙 410125 zhangmw@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      洞庭湖区水量丰富且季节变化大,对湖区小型哺乳动物造成一定压力。具有游泳能力的小型哺乳动物可利用水体逃生扩散,游泳能力影响其分布情况。黑线姬鼠(Apodemus agrarius)为洞庭湖区主要优势鼠种,在湖区各生境中均占优势;灰麝鼩(Crocidura attenuata)在湖区亦有分布,二者分布特点不同,可能与游泳能力有关。为观察比较二者游泳能力,野外捕捉动物进行游泳实验,观察并比较二者的游泳行为及皮毛吸水率。结果发现,灰麝鼩采用狗刨式在水面游泳,背腹部没入水中,身体与水面倾斜度较大,利用四肢划水提供动力,游泳期间无漂浮行为,皮毛吸水率随游泳时间延长而增长,游泳行为及皮毛吸水率无性别差异。黑线姬鼠也采用狗刨式在水面游泳,仅腹部没入水中,身体与水面倾斜度较小,主要利用后肢划水,可漂浮在水面,皮毛吸水率随游泳时间延长而增长,游泳行为及皮毛吸水率无性别差异。两者比较显示,黑线姬鼠采用水生适应程度较好的游泳方式,游泳能力比灰麝鼩强,其皮毛防水性能优于灰麝鼩,皮毛吸水率和吸水率速率显著低于灰麝鼩。上述结果表明,黑线姬鼠和灰麝鼩都具有一定的水中运动能力,但黑线姬鼠的游泳方式及皮毛防水性比灰麝鼩强,可能是其广泛分布于洞庭湖湖区的原因之一。
英文摘要:
      To study the distribution pattern and changing mechanism of small mammals in the Dongting Lake from the perspective of animals using water to migrate and diffuse, we captured 13 adult Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and 11 adult Grey Shrew (Crocidura attenuata) in the Dongting Lake area for swimming tests at the end of July 2018, observed their swimming behavior, and measured their fur absorption of water for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 30 minutes. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The results showed that: (1) The Grey Shrew use the horizontal dog-paddle posture during swimming and stroke water with all limbs (Fig.1), which the water absorption rate of fur increased with the swimming time but there was no gender difference (P > 0.05, Table 1). (2) The Striped Field Mouse, who use the horizontal dog-paddle posture during swimming, mainly use hindlegs to draw water and can float with no paddle (Fig.2), and the water absorption rate of fur increased with the swimming time with no gender difference (P > 0.05, Table 2). (3) The waterproofness of the fur between the two mammals was significantly different (P < 0.05, Table 3): the water absorption rate of Grey Shrew was 12.7%, 18.22%, 26.31% and 26.46% respectively, and that of Striped Field Mouse was 9.16%, 12.41%, 13.87% and 15.90% respectively (Table 3); the water absorption growth rate of Grey Shrew was 4.232%/min, 1.105%/min, 0.809%/min, 0.005%/min, and that of Striped Field Mouse was 3.054%/min, 0.650%/min, 0.146%/min, 0.068%/min (Fig.3), indicating that the Striped Field Mouse’s fur waterproofness is better than that of Grey Shrew. The experiment shows that both Striped Field Mouse and Grey Shrew have some swimming ability, but the adaptability of the Striped Field Mouse to the water environment is stronger than that of the Grey Shrew, which may be one of the reasons why it is widely distributed in the Dongting Lake area.
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