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袁耀华,田秀华,张佰莲.2020.圈养小熊猫粪便微生物组成 及其影响因子初探.动物学杂志,55(5):614-623.
圈养小熊猫粪便微生物组成 及其影响因子初探
Fecal Microbial Composition and Influencing Factors of Captive Red Panda Ailurus fulgens
投稿时间:2020-03-06  修订日期:2020-09-02
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202005010
中文关键词:  小熊猫  粪便微生物  日粮组成  年龄
英文关键词:Red Panda, Ailurus fulgens  Fecal microbiota  Diet composition  Age
基金项目:上海市绿化和市容管理局资助项目(No. G170420)
作者单位E-mail
袁耀华 上海动物园 上海 200335 yuanyaohua2020@qq.com 
田秀华 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院 哈尔滨 150040 tianxiu-hua@163.com 
张佰莲 上海农林职业技术学院 上海 201699 zhangbl2020@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)经过长期的适应性进化,食性依赖于高纤维含量的竹子,同时保留了具有食肉动物特征的消化系统,在分类学、系统进化及生态学领域都具有重要的研究价值。本研究旨在分析小熊猫粪便微生物结构组成,探讨其食竹习性的生物学机制。采集上海动物园和杭州动物园两种日粮的小熊猫新鲜粪便,开展基于16S rRNA基因的Hiseq高通量测序,分析小熊猫粪便微生物的结构组成,并探讨日粮组成和年龄(幼龄组2只,成年组4只,老年组3只)对小熊猫粪便微生物结构组成的影响。研究表明,不同日粮组成会影响小熊猫粪便微生物多样性(P < 0.05),成年组小熊猫粪便微生物多样性显著高于幼龄组和老年组(P < 0.05)。在微生物门水平上,小熊猫粪便微生物以厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、变形菌门(Proteobacteria)和拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)为主,在属水平上以埃希-志贺菌属(Escherichia-Shigella)、狭义梭菌属(Clostridium sensu stricto)和肠杆菌属(Enterobacter)为主。小熊猫粪便微生物中,具有代谢碳水化合物和氨基酸功能的基因丰度最高,其次为代谢能量和脂类的基因。与纤维素降解有关的酶中,能够表达6-磷酸-β-葡糖苷酶和β-葡糖苷酶的基因丰度最高,有助于小熊猫消化高纤维性食物。小熊猫的肠道微生物具有很强的代谢碳水化合物和氨基酸的功能,并且能够产生高丰度消化纤维素的酶。
英文摘要:
      Red Panda Ailurus fulgens which depends heavily on bamboo with high fiber content, like Giant Panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca, retains the similar digestive system with carnivore. The purpose of our research is to determine the microbial structure of the feces of Red panda, and explore the biological mechanism of the bamboo feeding habits. Feces of captive Red pandas from Hangzhou zoo and Shanghai zoo were collected, and Hiseq high-throughput sequencing based on 16S rRNA gene was conducted to determine the structure of fecal microbiota of Red panda. For the diversity of microbiota composition, Sobs, Shannon, simpson, ace and Chao1 index were calculated. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to evaluate the influence of diet composition and age on the microbiota structure. Tax4Fun was used to predict the function of microbiota. The results showed that the diet compositions influenced the microbiota diversity of Red pandas (P < 0.05), and the microbial diversity of adult Red pandas was significantly higher than that of cub and old groups (P < 0.05) (Table 2). The fecal microbiota of the Red panda was mainly composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroides at phylum level, and composed of Eschericia-Shigella, Clostridium sensu stricto and Enterobacter at genus level (Fig. 2). For the fecal microbiota of Red panda, the metabolic genes related to carbohydrates and amino acids were the richest, followed by the metabolic genes related to energy and lipid (Fig. 5). 6-phosphate-β-glucosidase and β-glucosidase might be helpful for the digestion of high fiber diets (Fig. 6). The microorganisms of Red panda can be helpful in metabolizing carbohydrates and amino acids, and producing enzymes to digest cellulose.
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