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高子靖,卜海侠,鲁长虎.2020.三种圈养草食性野生动物粪便对 粪食性金龟的引诱效果.动物学杂志,55(5):566-573.
三种圈养草食性野生动物粪便对 粪食性金龟的引诱效果
Attractiveness of Three Species of Captive Wild Herbivore Dung to Dung Beetles
投稿时间:2020-03-15  修订日期:2020-08-22
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202005004
中文关键词:  粪食性金龟  草食性野生动物粪便  多样性  南京红山森林动物园
英文关键词:Dung beetles  Herbivorous wildlife dung  Diversity  Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo
基金项目:江苏省高校优势学科建设工程项目
作者单位E-mail
高子靖 南京林业大学生物与环境学院 南京 210037 1954470541@qq.com 
卜海侠 南京红山森林动物园 南京 210028 2784086526@qq.com 
鲁长虎 南京林业大学生物与环境学院 南京 210037 luchanghu@njfu.com.cn 
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中文摘要:
      圈养草食性野生动物产生的大量粪便堆积容易造成环境污染,且处理耗时耗力。如果能筛选、利用粪食性金龟对草食性野生动物粪便进行处理,无疑具有一定的应用价值。本研究于2019年8和9月,以南京红山森林动物园3种圈养草食性野生动物,亚洲象(Elephas maximus)、黇鹿(Dama dama)和长颈鹿(Giraffa camelopardalis)的新鲜粪便为诱饵,在南京紫金山研究了粪便对粪食性金龟的引诱效果。本实验分为2个阶段,第1阶段采用更换陷阱法,第2阶段采用放置陷阱法,采用单因素方差分析(One-way ANOVA)对粪食性金龟诱捕数量进行检验。第1阶段更换陷阱法共引诱采集粪食性金龟4 597头,隶属于1科5属7种,优势种为中华嗡蜣螂(Onthophagus sinicus)和短亮凯蜣螂(Caccobius brevis),占总捕获量的比例分别为48.79%和30.95%。第2阶段放置陷阱法共引诱采集粪食性金龟3 512头,同样隶属于1科5属7种,物种与阶段1实验结果相同。粪食性金龟对3种野生动物粪便显示多食性特征,在3种粪便中取食活动的有效时间段主要集中在1 ~ 2 d内,活动时间较短,粪便放置第7天,基本不存在粪食性金龟的活动。粪食性金龟群落的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数在亚洲象粪便中相对较高。本研究表明,动物园3种圈养草食性野生动物粪便对粪食性金龟具有较好的引诱效果,未来需进一步研究粪食性金龟对粪便的处理效果。
英文摘要:
      The accumulation of large amounts of dung from captive herbivorous wildlife can easily cause environmental pollution and its treatment is time-consuming. Dung beetles feed on the dung of mammals or use mammalian dung as a place for breeding activities If dung beetles can be screened and used to treat the dung of herbivorous wildlife, it will undoubtedly have certain application value. Fresh dung samples of three species of captive herbivorous wild mammals (namely, Elephas maximus, Dama dama and Giraffa camelopardalis) from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo were used as bait in this study from August, 2019 to September, 2019. The replacement and placement trap methods during the two stages of the experiment were used in Nanjing Zijin mountain to investigate the attraction of dung to dung beetles. One-way ANOVA was used to test the trapping quantity of dung beetles. The results showed that a total of 4 597 dung beetles were recorded in the first stage, belonging to 7 species, 5 genera and 1 family. During the first stage, Onthophagus sinicus (48.79%) and Caccobius brevis (30.95%) were the dominant species (Table 1). In the second stage, 3 512 dung beetles were recorded, belonging to 7 species, 5 genera and 1 family (Fig. 2). Dung beetles showed polyphagous characteristics to the dung of three species of wild mammals and the effective time periods of feeding activities in all samples of dung were mainly concentrated in 1﹣2 d, which occupied a short time. There was almost no dung beetles found in the dung on the 7th day (Fig. 1, 3). Diversity index pattern of dung beetle community shows that Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index were relatively higher in E. maximus dung (Fig. 4). The study shows that the dung of three species of herbivorous wild mammals in captivity from zoo have great attraction to dung beetles and further study is needed on the treatment effect on dung by dung beetles.
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