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郑跃平,刘健,徐嘉楠,倪春华,范厚勇,崔百惠,吴铠,庄平.2021.人工养殖中华鲟后备亲鱼摄食和 生长的周年变化.动物学杂志,56(1):64-72.
人工养殖中华鲟后备亲鱼摄食和 生长的周年变化
The Annual Variation of Feeding Behavior and Growth for Reserve Broodstock of Chinese Sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis
投稿时间:2020-03-29  修订日期:2020-11-02
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202101008
中文关键词:  中华鲟  后备亲鱼  摄食行为  生长
英文关键词:Acipenser sinensis  Reserve broodstock  Feeding behavior  Growth
基金项目:上海市科技兴农重点攻关项目(沪农科创字(2018)第1-9号)
作者单位E-mail
郑跃平 ① 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306② 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心 上海 200092 ③ 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所上海长江口渔业资源增殖及生态修复工程技术研究中心 上海 200090 36881366@qq.com 
刘健 ② 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心 上海 200092 seasnake0511@outlook.com 
徐嘉楠 ② 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心 上海 200092 156551663@qq.com 
倪春华 ② 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心 上海 200092 895910501@qq.com 
范厚勇 ② 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心 上海 200092 601262871@qq.com 
崔百惠 ② 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心 上海 200092 462354930@qq.com 
吴铠 ② 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心 上海 200092 zhx-wukai@shac.gov.cn 
庄平 ① 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306③ 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所上海长江口渔业资源增殖及生态修复工程技术研究中心 上海 200090 pzhuang@ecsf.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      实现全人工繁殖是中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)物种保护的重要途径,建立中华鲟人工养殖亲鱼群体是人工繁殖的基础条件。本文以自然变温条件下人工培育的中华鲟后备亲鱼(年龄15龄,体长183 ~ 235 cm,体重71.5 ~ 180.5 kg,n = 14)为研究对象,每天对摄食行为进行观察记录,每月对生长指标进行检查测量,通过持续12个月的跟踪观测,开展后备亲鱼摄食和生长特征研究。结果显示,后备亲鱼摄食比例、摄食频次具有明显的月际变化特征,均存在极显著差异(P < 0.01),雌鱼、雄鱼均具有相似的周年变化规律,雌雄摄食比例仅9月存在显著差异(P < 0.05),雌雄摄食频次同月均无显著差异(P > 0.05);后备亲鱼配合饲料日饵率和鲜活饵料日饵率均呈现先下降后升高的变化趋势,配合饲料日饵率10月最低,为0.02%,1月最高,为0.19%,鲜活饵料日饵率6月最低,为0.12%,4月最高,为0.99%;配合饲料的年均摄食比例仅为18.39% ± 17.61%,鲜活饵料的年均摄食比例为62.57% ± 15.63%,配合饲料和鲜活饵料摄食比例存在极显著差异(P < 0.01),可见实验对象对鲜活饵料具有明显摄食偏好;配合饲料日饵率、鲜活饵料日饵率、总摄食率、雌鱼摄食率、总摄食频次和雌鱼摄食频次与水温存在显著负相关关系(P < 0.05);后备亲鱼体周长、体重、肥满度均呈现先下降后上升的变化趋势,呈现生长缓慢特征,不同月份肥满度存在显著差异(P < 0.05),其他生长指标不同月份间比较无显著差异(P > 0.05)。在中华鲟后备亲鱼培育管理中,应注意加强水温调控,提供适宜养殖条件,减少人为干扰,改善摄食和生长效果。本研究对中华鲟后备亲鱼养殖技术的改进具有参考价值。
英文摘要:
      Exploring the controlled artificial propagation is an important way of species conservation for Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). To accomplish it, the artificial cultured parental population is a basic demanding. In this study, by daily observation of feeding behavior (feeding proportion, feeding frequency and daily bait ratio) and monthly measurement of growth parameters (body length, body weight, body circumference and condition factor) on 14 artificial cultured reserve parental Chinese Sturgeon (15-year-old; body length, 183﹣235 cm; body weight, 71.5﹣180.5 kg), we investigated the annual variation of feeding behavior and growth performance of reserve parental Chinese Sturgeon under natural water conditions. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the variance between different month groups, and different sex. Post-hoc Duncan Multiple Comparison Test was used to analyze the variance between months. The results showed that, both feeding proportion and feeding frequency changed significantly between-month and exhibited an obvious inter-monthly variation feature. Similar variation disciplinarian, with no significant difference (P > 0.05), were found between male and female in most of the examination time point except feeding proportion in September (P < 0.05, Fig. 2). For feeding proportion, the highest was 86.9% ± 8.6% in April, while the lowest was 35.4% ± 28.5% in July (Fig. 2). For feeding frequency, the highest was 3.01 ± 1.35 times in March, while the lowest was 0.70 ± 0.63 times in July (Fig. 3). The daily bait rates of both compound bait and fresh bait present down first and then up trend. For compound bait, the lowest daily bait ratio was 0.02% in October, while the highest was 0.19% in January. And for fresh bait, the lowest daily bait ratio was 0.12% in June, while the highest was 0.99% in April (Fig. 4). The average annual feeding proportion of fresh food was 62.57% ± 15.63%, but the compound food was only 18.39% + 17.61%, which indicated an obvious preference of fresh food in Chinese Sturgeon. Negative correlations were obtained between compound food daily bait rate, fresh food daily bait rate, total feeding proportion, female feeding proportion, total feed frequency, female feed frequency and water temperature by Pearson correlation analysis (Table 1). The parental Chinese Sturgeon displayed a slower-growing feature, and the body circumference, body weight and condition factor showed down first and then up trend. Except condition factor, no significant difference can be detected in other growth parameters during the experimental period (Table 2). Although few inadequacies may occurred in experimental conditions and sampling process, such as the square fish pond with shallow water may cause spatial stress effect, monthly inspection and sampling may cause sampling interference, the results obtained in the present study still can be referred for improving cultivation techniques of Chinese Sturgeon. To improve feeding and growth of Chinese Sturgeon, water temperature regulation, suitable breeding facility, reducing interference and optimizing feed composition should be provided during the feeding management.
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