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罗益奎,陈辈乐,李飞,郑玺,农立初.2020.广西西大明山冠斑犀鸟的繁殖生物学.动物学杂志,55(6):720-729.
广西西大明山冠斑犀鸟的繁殖生物学
Breeding Biology of Oriental Pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in Xidamingshan, Guangxi, China
投稿时间:2020-04-06  修订日期:2020-10-27
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202006020
中文关键词:  次级洞巢鸟  热带亚洲  鸟类保护  食性
英文关键词:Secondary cavity-nesting birds  Tropical Asia  Avian conservation  Diet
基金项目:嘉道理农场暨植物园保育项目(No. KCC8800-212)
作者单位E-mail
罗益奎 嘉道理农场暨植物园 嘉道理中国保育 香港 philiplo@kfbg.org 
陈辈乐 嘉道理农场暨植物园 嘉道理中国保育 香港 boscokf@kfbg.org 
李飞 嘉道理农场暨植物园 嘉道理中国保育 香港 lifei@kfbg.org 
郑玺 嘉道理农场暨植物园 嘉道理中国保育 香港 zhengxi@kfbg.org 
农立初 广西西大明山自治区级自然保护区 崇左 532114 2966201074@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      作者于2014和2015年在广西西南部的西大明山自治区级自然保护区研究冠斑犀鸟(Anthracoceros albirostris)的繁殖生物学特征,以直接观察法或红外相机共观察5巢犀鸟,2014年2巢,2015年3巢。研究显示,西大明山的冠斑犀鸟在每年4月下旬至5月下旬开始营巢繁殖,雌鸟进入巢洞并在雄鸟协助下自封在其内,期间与幼鸟完全依靠雄鸟喂食。雄鸟带回巢的食物中,数量上有超过80%是果实。雌鸟在封巢期间完成换羽,并和幼鸟在7月中旬至8月中旬破巢而出,封巢时间为89 d 和93 d(n = 2),繁殖成功率为100%(n = 4),平均出巢幼鸟为(2.3 ± 0.5)只(2或3只,n = 4)。营巢树与人工林/林下作物的平均距离为87 m(0 ~ 210 m,n = 3),其中,两棵生长在当地人经常使用的山路旁。营巢树种分别为南酸枣(Choerospondias axillaris)及金叶树(Chrysophyllum lanceolatum),营巢树平均胸径为73.7 cm(72.0 ~ 75.0 cm,n = 3),巢洞高度为7.8 m和9.0 m(n = 2)。其中两棵营巢树在2014年和2015年的繁殖季均被重复利用。研究结果显示,西大明山的冠斑犀鸟在繁殖期间能承受一定程度的人为干扰;从封巢时间来看,雏鸟成长所需的时间与南宁动物园笼养环境下差别不大,显示当地食物资源不缺,但天然林破碎化严重,高大乔木较少,营巢树洞资源的缺乏似乎是制约西大明山冠斑犀鸟种群发展的重要因素。建议保护区加强护林力量,积极探索种植速生大胸径本土树种的可行性,并同时开展人工巢箱应用的研究。
英文摘要:
      The breeding biology of the Oriental Pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) (Fig. 1) in Xidamingshan Autonomous Nature Reserve in southwestern Guangxi was investigated, and five nests were monitored with direct observation or infrared cameras in two years (2 nests in 2014, 3 nests in 2015). Nesting trees were repeatedly used; nesting tree species were Choerospondias axillaris and Chrysophyllum lanceolatum. The average diameter at breast height of the nesting trees was 73.7 cm (n = 3), and the heights of the nesting cavities was 7.8 m and 9.0 m (n = 2) respectively, the average distance between the nesting trees and plantation/understorey crop was 87 m (0 – 210 m, n = 3), of which two trees grow by the side of trails frequently used by villagers (Table 1). The Oriental Pied Hornbill in Xidamingshan started breeding in late April to late May at the onset of wet season in that region, when female hornbills entered the nest cavities and confined themselves. Females completed their moulting during the confinement period, and emerged with the chicks between mid-July and mid-August. The nestling periods were 89 d and 93 d (n = 2), similar to that of captive pairs in nearby Nanning Zoo (89 days, n = 4). The breeding success rate was 100% (n = 4) and the average number of fledglings was 2.3 ± 0.5 (n = 4) (Table 2). Daily feeding pattern is bimodal, with peaks in the morning and before dusk (Fig. 3), while the daily feeding frequency increased gradually towards fledging of the chicks (Fig. 4). More than 80% of the food items the paired males delivered to their nests were fruits (Table 3). The Oriental Pied Hornbill of Xidamingshan in our study area could tolerate some degree of human disturbance during breeding period and local food resources seemed to be sufficient, but the natural forest was severely fragmented with only scattered big trees. Availability of nest cavity is likely a key limiting factor restricting population growth of the resident Oriental Pied Hornbill. It is recommended to strengthen law enforcement in the reserve and explore feasibility of planting fast-growing, large-girth native tree species and the application of artificial nest box.
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