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胡强,林红强,戴强,杨志松,何流洋,张文,施小刚.2020.卧龙保护区三种中型食肉动物的生态位差异.动物学杂志,55(6):685-691.
卧龙保护区三种中型食肉动物的生态位差异
Niche Differentiation among Three Middle-sized Carnivores in Wolong Nature Reserve
投稿时间:2020-04-20  修订日期:2020-10-26
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202006001
中文关键词:  栖息地  日节律  生态位  红外相机
英文关键词:Habitat  Daily rhythm  Niche  Infrared triggered camera
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 32070520),卧龙国家级自然保护区大熊猫同域犬科动物调查和保护管理规划研究项目,四川省野生动植物资源调查保护站豺野化放归及重引入项目
作者单位E-mail
胡强 四川卧龙国家级自然保护区管理局 汶川 623006 331060808@qq.com 
林红强 四川卧龙国家级自然保护区管理局 汶川 623006 390257287@qq.com 
戴强 中国科学院成都生物研究所 成都 610041 daiqiang@cib.ac.cn 
杨志松 四川省大熊猫科学研究院 成都 610000 yangzhisong@126.com 
何流洋 四川贡嘎山国家级自然保护区石棉管理处 石棉 625400 517161929@qq.com 
张文 四川省林业勘查设计研究院 成都 610081 1831841301@qq.com 
施小刚 四川卧龙国家级自然保护区管理局 汶川 623006 593839590@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      2014至2019年,利用红外相机对卧龙保护区的赤狐(Vulpes vulpes)、黄喉貂(Martes flavigula)和豹猫(Prionailurus bengalensis)进行了监测,并分析比较了三者的栖息地分布和日活动节律。结果显示,赤狐栖息地主要分布于保护区西部高海拔地区,与黄喉貂和豹猫栖息地重叠较少;豹猫和黄喉貂的栖息地均集中分布于皮条河以南,且相互重叠部分达56.7%;在日活动节律方面,赤狐和豹猫表现出夜行性,黄喉貂表现出昼行性。本研究表明,三种食肉动物均通过栖息地或日活动节律的差异产生了生态位分离,从而实现了在卧龙保护区内的相互共存。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the temporal and spatial niche differentiation among middle-sized carnivores and explain their coexistence strategies in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Yellow-throated Marten (Martes flavigula) and Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) were monitored from 2014 to 2019 using infrared triggered camera (Fig. 1). We modeled the habitat distribution of three species with MaxEnt and calculated the habitat overlap rate among species to indicate spatial niche differentiation. The results showed that the habitat area of Red Fox, Yellow-throated Marten and Leopard Cat was 137, 191, and 186 km2 respectively. The Red Fox inhabited in the western area of the reserve with high elevation, while the Yellow-throated Marten and Leopard Cat prefer to the south-eastern area with lower elevation (Fig. 2). The habitat overlap rate between Yellow-throated Marten and Leopard Cat was 56.7%, followed by that between Red Fox and Leopard Cat (16.5%). The biggest spatial niche differentiation was between Red Fox and Yellow-throated Marten with habitat overlap rate of 7.7%. The daily rhythm of three species was used to indicate they temporal niche. We divided the day into 24 periods and period n was defined as the time interval between n and n + 1 oclock. We calculated the time-period relative abundance index (ITRA) of each period of each species to indicate the daily rhythm of three species. The result showed that the Red Fox and Leopard Cat showed similar daily rhythm, which were characterized by more active at night. The activity peaks of Red Fox occurred at 4:00﹣6:00, 20:00﹣21:00 and 23:00﹣24:00, while that of Leopard Cat occurred at 2:00﹣4:00, 6:00﹣7:00, 20:00﹣21:00 and 22:00﹣1:00 of the next day. On the contrary, Yellow-throated Marten tend to be active during the daytime and the activity peaks occurred at 9:00﹣10:00, 11:00﹣15:00 and 16:00﹣19:00 (Fig. 3). The results indicate that Red Fox, Yellow-throated Marten and Leopard Cat have adapted to different temporal or spatial niche from each other, and this makes it possible for them to coexist in the Wolong National Nature Reserve.
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