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李钰慧,马广智,刘晟源,周岐海,李友邦,黄中豪.2021.广西西南部熊猴对石山森林的利用.动物学杂志,56(1):16-27.
广西西南部熊猴对石山森林的利用
Habitat Use by Assamese Macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Limestone Forests, Southwestern Guangxi, China
投稿时间:2020-05-07  修订日期:2020-11-04
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202101003
中文关键词:  熊猴  栖息地利用  石山森林
英文关键词:Assamese Macaques, Macaca assamensis  Habitat use  Limestone forest
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31960106,No. 31172122)
作者单位E-mail
李钰慧 ① 珍稀濒危动植物生态与环境保护教育部重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 ② 广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 liyuhui1120@qq.com 
马广智 ③ 华南师范大学生命科学学院 广州 510631 magzh59@126.com 
刘晟源 ④ 广西弄岗国家级自然保护区管理中心 龙州 532400 619368074@qq.com 
周岐海 ① 珍稀濒危动植物生态与环境保护教育部重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 ② 广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 zhouqh@ioz.ac.cn 
李友邦 ① 珍稀濒危动植物生态与环境保护教育部重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 ② 广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 lyb_2001@126.com 
黄中豪 ① 珍稀濒危动植物生态与环境保护教育部重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 ② 广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室广西师范大学 桂林 541006 ③ 华南师范大学生命科学学院 广州 510631 hzh773@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      栖息地利用直接反映灵长类适应环境或应对环境变化所采取的行为策略,是了解和评估物种适应能力与进化潜力的重要途径。石山森林是一类特殊的生境,栖息在石山森林中的灵长类动物可能展现出独特的适应策略。为了解熊猴(Macaca assamensis)对石山森林的利用策略,2012年9月至2013年8月采用瞬时扫描法对广西弄岗国家级自然保护区内一群野生熊猴的行为活动进行观察。结果表明,熊猴对石山不同部位的利用具有选择性(χ2 = 35.738,df = 3,P < 0.001)。熊猴对崖壁的利用频率最高,其次是山坡和山顶,对平地的利用频率最低。分析发现,熊猴对各山体部位的利用没有显著的季节性差异。熊猴的主要行为活动在不同山体部位的发生频率有显著差异(休息:χ2 = 58.075,df = 3,P < 0.001;移动:χ2 = 36.709,df = 3,P < 0.001;觅食:χ2 = 40.786,df = 3,P < 0.001)。休息和移动主要发生在崖壁,而觅食主要发生在山坡。在坡向利用中,熊猴对北向利用频率最高,其次为东向,后依次为西向和无坡向,最后为南向。在果实缺乏季节,猴群对南向的利用频率明显高于果实丰盛季节。休息行为在不同坡向的利用频率有显著季节差异(χ2 = 13.292,df = 4,P < 0.05),表现为猴群在果实缺乏季节对南向的利用频率明显高于果实丰盛季节(t =﹣2.804,n = 12,P < 0.05)。熊猴对栖息地的利用受到果实可利用性和温度的影响。在果实丰盛季节,猴群的休息行为在崖壁的发生频率降低(r =﹣0.740,t =﹣3.481,df = 11,P < 0.01),在山坡的发生频率增高(r = 0.808,t = 4.329,df = 11,P < 0.01)。逐步回归分析结果表明,温度是影响熊猴栖息地利用的主要气候因子,表现为猴群对崖壁的总体利用频率与平均气温成负相关(r =﹣0.617,t =﹣2.477,df = 11,P < 0.05);猴群觅食时对北向的利用频率与温度成负相关(r =﹣0.764,t =﹣3.748,df = 11,P < 0.01)。熊猴主要利用崖壁以降低被捕食的风险,在果实丰富季节选择食物丰富的山坡觅食,这可能是猴群在觅食收益与捕食风险中权衡的结果。本研究表明,食物的数量和分布、猴群的反捕食和行为热调节策略是影响熊猴栖息地利用的重要因素。
英文摘要:
      Assamese Macaques (Macaca assamensis) inhabit various habitats; however, few studies have been conducted to document the selection of limestone forests by this monkey. Limestone forest is a unique habitat for primates, due to the patchy vegetation, and a large area of bare rock as well as hourly fluctuations in temperature, likely forcing monkeys to adopt unique adaptation strategy. In this study, we studied habitat use pattern of one group of Assamese macaques living in Guangxi Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Southwest Guangxi, China, to explore how these macaques use and adapt to the limestone forests. We conducted our surveys from September 2012 until August 2013. The instantaneous scan sampling method was used to collect the behavioral data, as well as to record the locations of Assamese Macaque individuals. In addition, the food availability was assessed by monitoring food trees’ phenology. We expressed the monthly utilization proportion of vertical zones as the records’ number of specific locations divided by the total records in each month. Annual and seasonal percentages were obtained by averaging relative monthly values. The differences were estimated using independent samples t-tests in normal distribution data and Mann-Whitney U-test in abnormal distribution data. In fact, for the multiple sample analysis, a Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The stepwise regression was performed to test the effects of the ecological factor on habitat use. Results showed that there were significant differences between different vertical zones in limestone forests (χ2 = 35.738, df = 3, P < 0.001). Cliff had the highest use frequency among the hill zones (41.0% ± 8.8%), followed by the hill slopes (32.7% ± 6.4%), hilltops (25.3% ± 7.1%), and flat land (1.0% ± 2.4%) (Table 2 and Fig. 2). There was no significant seasonal difference in the overall use pattern of the vertical zone by the Assamese Macaques. Different vertical zones were noticed to be used by Assamese Macaques for specific activities (Resting: χ2 = 58.075, df = 3, P < 0.001; Moving: χ2 = 36.709, df = 3, P < 0.001; Feeding: χ2 = 40.786, df = 3, P < 0.001). Specifically, the cliffs were frequently used as resting and moving sites, and the hill slopes were used as feeding sites. The utilization frequency of the cliffs in the fruit-rich season was lower than that in the fruit-lean season, which was contrary to cases recorded in the hill slopes (Table 2 and Fig. 2). As for the slope orientation, the utilization frequency of the north slope was the highest (25.3% ± 10.9%), followed by the east slope (25.1% ± 12.0%), the west slope (20.3% ± 9.9%), then the none orientation slope (18.0% ± 6.2%), and the south slope (11.3% ± 4.7%) (Table 3 and Figure 3). The utilization frequency of the south slope in the fruit-lean season was higher than that in the fruit-rich season. There were significant seasonal differences across different slope directions during the resting actively (χ2 = 13.292, df = 4, P < 0.05), showing that the utilization frequency of the south slope was higher in the fruit-lean season than that in the fruit-rich season (Table 3 and Fig. 3). Assamese Macaques’ habitat use was mainly influenced by fruits availability and environmental temperature. The fruits availability was negatively correlated with resting activity documented on the cliffs (r =﹣0.740, t =﹣3.481, df = 11, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the resting behavior observed in the hill slope area (r = 0.808, t = 4.329, df = 11, P < 0.01). The utilization frequency of overall activities on cliffs (r =﹣0.617, t =﹣2.477, df = 11, P < 0.05) as well as the utilization frequency of the north slope in feeding (r =﹣0.764, t =﹣3.748, df = 11, P < 0.01) both was negatively and significantly correlated with the average temperature. Our results indicated that Assamese Macaques used the cliffs as a sleeping site and chose high-quality patch nearby for foraging to maximize the feeding benefits, which could be the trade-off strategy between foraging benefits and predation risks. Moreover, temperature also acted as a vital factor in shaping habitats’ use pattern in Assamese Macaques, suggesting behavioral thermoregulation was of great importance for Assamese Macaques to adapt on the limestone forests habitat.
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